Getting Started

[Note: While the steps below are static text that dates to whatever the date is at the top of this post, the resources listed below this text are constantly and dynamically updated.  You can also see them in our Zotero Library.]

  1. LOOK – Examine the garment carefully and try to fully describe it in as much detail as possible. It can be helpful to sketch the silhouette or key details.
  2. IDENTIFY THE DATE – If you already know the date, go to the relevant decade page to find further resources on dress in that period. If you don’t know the date, head to the century overview pages and look for the century and then decade that seems closest.
  3. COMPARE – Once you know the correct decade, it can be very useful to compare your garment to what was fashionable at the same time. Was it typical? What kind of context would it have been worn in?
  4. DIG DEEPER – Review the suggested primary and secondary sources for your decade (and perhaps century) and select the ones that sound most promising. Look online or find sources at the library and see what they have to say. Remember one good source can often point you to others, so see what sources they’re citing and find those as well!
  5. ASSESS – What have you learned? What can you say about the purpose, style, materials, construction and fashionability of your chosen garment (whether depicted or real)? How does it fit within its time period?

Research Sources

Have a research source, museum collection or other resource to recommend?  Contact us!

Where to Start? Recommended Survey Texts
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Boucher, François, Yvonne Deslandres, and John Ross. A History of Costume in the West: With 1188 Illustrations, 365 in Colour. London: Thames and Hudson, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/443676264.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Fogg, Marnie, ed. Fashion: The Whole Story. New York: Prestel, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/898628238.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Mendes, Valerie D., and Amy De La Haye. Fashion since 1900. 2nd ed. World of Art. London: Thames & Hudson, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/751457342.
Tortora, Phyllis G., and Sara B. Marcketti. Survey of Historic Costume. Sixth edition. New York: Fairchild Books, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/972500782.
Fashion Dictionaries
Ambrose, Gavin, and Paul Harris. The Visual Dictionary of Fashion Design. Lausanne: AVA Publishing, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/639150741.
Clark, Judith, Adam Phillips, and Norbert Schoerner. The Concise Dictionary of Dress. London: Violette Editions, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/770841284.
Conway, George L. Garment and Textile Dictionary. Albany: Delmar Publishers, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/807450735.
Cumming, Valerie, C. Willett Cunnington, and Phillis Cunnington. The Dictionary of Fashion History. Second edition. London: Bloombury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1005840681.
Cumming, Valerie, C. Willett Cunnington, Phillis Cunnington, Charles Relly Beard, and C. Willett Cunnington. The Dictionary of Fashion History. Oxford: Berg, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1008259246.
Lewandowski, Elizabeth J. The Complete Costume Dictionary. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/788995672.
Newman, Alex, and Zakee Shariff. Fashion A to Z: An Illustrated Dictionary. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2009. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857551868.
Oxford, University Press. Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Edited by Joanne Bubolz Eicher. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/767923304.
Picken, Mary Brooks. The Fashion Dictionary: Fabric, Sewing, and Apparel as Expressed in the Language of Fashion. Rev. and enl. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1973. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/572308967.
Tortora, Phyllis G., Sandra J. Keiser, and Bina Abling. The Fairchild Books Dictionary of Fashion. 4th edition. New York: Fairchild Books, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900349357.
Vergani, Guido, ed. Fashion Dictionary. New York: Baldini Castoldi Dalai editore, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/617445755.
Research Methods
Cavallaro, Dani, and Alexandra Warwick. “Clothes in Art - Painting In and Out of the Frame.” In Fashioning the Frame : Boundaries, Dress and Body, 157–201. New York: Berg, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/228032769.
Chapman, James. The New Film History: Sources, Methods, Approaches. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/845496769.
Fleming, E. McClung. “Artifact Study: A Proposed Model.” Winterthur Portfolio 9 (1974): 153–73.
Geczy, Adam, Vicki Karaminas, Valerie Steele, and Aileen Ribeiro, eds. “Painting: Refashioning Art – Some Visual Approaches to the Study of the History of Dress.” In Fashion and Art, 169–76. New York: Berg, 2012.
Hollander, Anne. Seeing through Clothes. New York: Viking Press, 1978. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/228775549.
Kawamura, Yuniya. Doing Research in Fashion and Dress: An Introduction to Qualitative Methods. Oxford: Berg, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/949805901.
Mida, Ingrid, and Alexandra Kim. The Dress Detective: A Practical Guide to Object-Based Research in Fashion. London: Bloomsbury, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/898228095.
Taylor, Lou. The Study of Dress History. Studies in Design. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1000627512.
Zitzlsperger, Philipp. Dürers Pelz und das Recht im Bild: Kleiderkunde als Methode der Kunstgeschichte, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979758569.
Conservation & Display
Ashelford, Jane. Care of Clothes. London: National Trust, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39719694.
Boersma, Foekje, Agnes W. Brokerhof, Saskia van den Berg, and Judith Tegelaers. Unravelling Textiles: A Handbook for the Preservation of Textile Collections. London: Archetype, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/889879609.
Brooks, Mary M., and Dinah Eastop, eds. Refashioning and Redress: Conserving and Displaying Dress. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/957546414.
Brooks, Mary M., and Dinah Eastop, eds. Changing Views of Textile Conservation. Readings in Conservation. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/774630736.
Finch, Karen, and Greta Putnam. The Care & Preservation of Textiles. London: Batsford, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33076857.
Herrold, Sue. Care of Antique Clothing and Textiles at Home and Small Museums. Laramie, WY: Sue’s Frou Frou Publications, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/34180639.
King, Rosalie Rosso. Textile Identification, Conservation, and Preservation. Park Ridge, N.J., U.S.A: Noyes Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/925267564.
Landi, Sheila. The Textile Conservator’s Manual. Rev. 2nd ed. Butterworth-Heinemann Series in Conservation and Museology. Oxford ; Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/960835203.
Mailand, Harold F. Considerations for the Care of Textiles and Costumes: A Handbook for the Non-Specialist. 3d. rev. printing. Indianapolis: The Museum, 1980. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/7285253.
Walkley, Christina, and Vanda Foster. Crinolines and Crimping Irons: Victorian Clothes: How They Were Cleaned and Cared For. London: Owen, 1978. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1008387507.
Fashion Studies - State of the Field Articles
Black, Sandy, ed. The Handbook of Fashion Studies. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/969865630.
Granata, Francesca. “Fashion Studies In-between: A Methodological Case Study and an Inquiry into the State of Fashion Studies.” Fashion Theory 16, no. 1 (March 1, 2012): 67–82. https://doi.org/10.2752/175174112X13183318404221.
Jenss, Heike, ed. Fashion Studies: Research Methods, Sites and Practices. Dress, Body, Culture. London ; New York: Bloomsbury Academic, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing, Plc, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/939387891.
Mora, Emanuela, Agnès Rocamora, and Paolo Volonté. “The Internationalization of Fashion Studies: Rethinking the Peer-Reviewing Process.” International Journal of Fashion Studies 1, no. 1 (April 1, 2014): 3–17. https://doi.org/10.1386/infs.1.1.3_2.
Nicklas, Charlotte, and Annebella Pollen, eds. Dress History: New Directions in Theory and Practice. London, UK ; New York, NY, USA: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/964065710.
Rocamora, Agnès, and Anneke Smelik. Thinking through Fashion: A Guide to Key Theorists. London: I.B. Tauris, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/971604371.
Taylor, Lou. Establishing Dress History. Studies in Design. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/607160452.
Taylor, Lou. The Study of Dress History. Studies in Design. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1000627512.
Fashion Journals
“Address: Journal for Fashion Criticism,” n.d. http://www.addresspublications.com/home/.
“Critical Studies in Fashion & Beauty,” n.d. https://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/journals/view-Journal,id=178/.
“Dress: The Journal of the Costume Society of America,” n.d. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/ydre20/current.
“Fashion Practice: The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion Industry,” n.d. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rffp20/current.
“Fashion Projects,” n.d. http://www.fashionprojects.org/.
“Fashion Studies,” n.d. https://www.fashionstudies.ca/.
“Fashion Theory,” n.d. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rfft20/current.
“Film, Fashion & Consumption,” n.d. https://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/journals/view-Journal,id=203/.
“International Journal of Fashion Studies,” n.d. https://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/journals/view-Journal,id=230/.
“Journal of Textile Design Research and Practice,” n.d. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rftd20/current.
“Textile History,” n.d. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/ytex20/current.
“Textile: Cloth and Culture,” n.d. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rftx20/current.
“The Fashion Studies Journal,” n.d. http://www.fashionstudiesjournal.org/.
“Vestoj | The Platform for Critical Thinking on Fashion,” n.d. http://vestoj.com/.
Reference
Ambrose, Gavin, and Paul Harris. The Visual Dictionary of Fashion Design. Lausanne: AVA Publishing, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/639150741.
Bernheim, Nele. “Modernism in Fashion.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed July 24, 2017. http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T2082717.
Best, Kate. The History of Fashion Journalism. London: Bloombury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/934676847.
Clark, Judith, Adam Phillips, and Norbert Schoerner. The Concise Dictionary of Dress. London: Violette Editions, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/770841284.
Cumming, Valerie, C. Willett Cunnington, Phillis Cunnington, Charles Relly Beard, and C. Willett Cunnington. The Dictionary of Fashion History. Oxford: Berg, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1008259246.
De La Haye, Amy, Rebecca Kaplan, and Laura Dozier, eds. A to Z of Style. New York: Abrams, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/781677606.
Earnshaw, Pat. A Dictionary of Lace. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1982. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/41518399.
Earnshaw, Pat. The Identification of Lace. Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire, UK: Shire Publications, 2000. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/558578337.
Emery, Irene. The Primary Structures of Fabrics: An Illustrated Classification. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications/Whitney Library of Design, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/286447268.
Font, Lourdes M. “Evening Wear.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed July 18, 2017. http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T2082538.
Font, Lourdes M., and Elizabeth McMahon. “Underwear.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed July 18, 2017. http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T2082538.
Font, Lourdes M., Elizabeth McMahon, Cassandra Gero, Ann Poulson, Nancy Deihl, Deirdre Clemente, and Clare Sauro. “Fashion: Categories of Design.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed July 24, 2017. http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T2082538.
Gero, Cassandra. “Futurism in Fashion.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed July 24, 2017. http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T2082710.
Grossman, Meghan E. “Fashion Photography.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed July 24, 2017. http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T2082693.
Hallett, Clive, and Amanda Johnston. Fabric for Fashion: A Comprehensive Guide to Natural Fibres. London: Laurence King, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794493271.
Hallett, Clive, and Amanda Johnston. Fabric for Fashion: The Swatch Book. London: Laurence King, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/990441136.
Hallett, Clive, Amanda Johnston, and Myka Baum. Fabric for Fashion: The Complete Guide: Natural and Man-Made Fibers. Updated edition. London: Laurence King Pub, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/970523252.
Kapp, Elinor. Ruffians & Loose Women: More Words Derived from Textiles. Cardiff: Elinor Kapp, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/940364591.
Mackrell, Alice. An Illustrated History of Fashion: 500 Years of Fashion Illustration. New York: Costume & Fashion Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/185591603.
Martin, Richard. La Dernière Mode 1995: A Bibliography of Fashion, Etc. New York: Costume Institute, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/194128780.
Mauriès, Patrick, Jean-Christophe Napias, and Christian Lacroix, eds. Fashion Quotes: Stylish Wit & Catwalk Wisdom. London: Thames & Hudson, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/958112178.
McDowell, Colin, ed. The Pimlico Companion to Fashion: A Literary Anthology. London: Pimlico, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/100814823.
Newman, Alex, and Zakee Shariff. Fashion A to Z: An Illustrated Dictionary. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2009. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857551868.
Oxford, University Press. Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Edited by Joanne Bubolz Eicher. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/767923304.
Pastoureau, Michel. Blue: The History of a Color. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/463944214.
Pastoureau, Michel. Black: The History of a Color. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/647361662.
Phipps, Elena. Looking at Textiles: A Guide to Technical Terms. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/808254641.
Picken, Mary Brooks. The Fashion Dictionary: Fabric, Sewing, and Apparel as Expressed in the Language of Fashion. Rev. and enl. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1973. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/572308967.
Poulson, Ann. “Classicism in Fashion.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed July 24, 2017. http://libproxy.fitsuny.edu:2150/subscriber/article_citations/grove/art/T2082632.
Poulson, Ann. “Fashion Illustration.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed July 24, 2017. http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T2082640.
Prichard, Susan Perez. Film Costume, an Annotated Bibliography. Metuchen N.J: Scarecrow Press, 1981. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/7462226.
Purdy, Daniel L., ed. The Rise of Fashion: A Reader. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1008514913.
Scaturro, Sarah. “Fashion and Technology.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed July 24, 2017. http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T2081369.
Scaturro, Sarah. “Fashion and the Environment.” Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed July 24, 2017. http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T2081382.
Steele, Valerie, ed. The Berg Companion to Fashion. New York: Berg, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768814940.
Steele, Valerie, ed. Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Scribner Library of Daily Life. Detroit: Thomson/Gale, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/441915435.
Sterlacci, Francesca, and Joanne Arbuckle. Historical Dictionary of the Fashion Industry. 2. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press, 2008. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1008866346.
Sterlacci, Francesca, and Joanne Arbuckle. Historical Dictionary of the Fashion Industry. Second edition. Historical Dictionaries of Professions and Industries. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/969368326.
Tortora, Phyllis G., Sandra J. Keiser, and Bina Abling. The Fairchild Books Dictionary of Fashion. 4th edition. New York: Fairchild Books, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900349357.
Vergani, Guido, ed. Fashion Dictionary. New York: Baldini Castoldi Dalai editore, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/617445755.
Welters, Linda, and Abby Lillethun, eds. The Fashion Reader. 2nd edition. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/956551659.
Wilcox, Claire. Bags. Rev. and ex. ed. London: Thames & Hudson, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/986352294.

Museum Collections

Accessory Museums
“Bata Shoe Museum: A Museum of Footwear.” Toronto, n.d. http://www.batashoemuseum.ca/.
“London College of Fashion Cordwainer’s Shoe Collection,” n.d. https://vads.ac.uk/collections/LCFSHOE.html.
“Museum of Bags and Purses.” Amsterdam, n.d. https://tassenmuseum.nl/en/.
“Shoe Icons: Virtual Shoe Museum.” Russia, n.d. http://eng.shoe-icons.com/index.htm.
“Simone Handbag Museum.” Seoul, South Korea, n.d. http://simonehandbagmuseum.co.kr/.
“World Jewellery Museum.” Seoul, South Korea, n.d. http://www.wjmuseum.com/collection/e_coll_intro.asp?category=Amber&PageNo=1.
Design & Decorative Art Museums
“Bard Graduate Center Gallery.” New York, n.d. https://www.bgc.bard.edu/gallery/.
“Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum.” New York, n.d. https://www.cooperhewitt.org/.
“Design Museum.” London, n.d. http://designmuseum.org/.
“Museo Franz Mayer.” Mexico City, n.d. http://franzmayer.org.mx/.
“Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences.” Sydney, n.d. https://maas.museum/.
“The Museum of Arts and Design.” New York, n.d. http://madmuseum.org/.
“V&A · The World’s Leading Museum of Art and Design.” London, n.d. https://www.vam.ac.uk/.
Designer Museums
“Ferragamo Museo.” Florence, Italy, n.d. https://www.ferragamo.com/museo/en/usa/.
“Musée Christian Dior.” Granville, France, n.d. http://www.musee-dior-granville.com/.
“Palazzo Fortuny.” Venice, Italy, n.d. http://fortuny.visitmuve.it/.
“Valentino Garavani Museum,” n.d. http://www.valentinogaravanimuseum.com/.
Fashion Museums & Collections - Americas
“Chicago History Museum | Costume and Textiles.” Chicago, n.d. https://www.chicagohistory.org/collections/collection-contents/costume-and-textiles/.
“Costume Museum of Canada.” Winnipeg, n.d. http://www.costumemuseumcanada.com/.
“De Young Museum | Costume and Textile Arts.” San Francisco, n.d. http://deyoung.famsf.org/deyoung/collections/textile-arts.
“Fashion2Fiber - Historic Costume & Textiles Collection (Ohio State University).” Columbus, Ohio, n.d. http://fashion2fiber.osu.edu/.
“FIDM Museum and Galleries.” Los Angeles, n.d. http://fidmmuseum.org/.
“Kellen Design Archives @ The New School.” New York, n.d. http://guides.library.newschool.edu/c.php?g=274421&p=1830555.
“Kent State University Museum.” Kent, Ohio, n.d. https://www.kent.edu/museum.
“LACMA | Costume and Textiles.” Los Angeles, n.d. http://www.lacma.org/art/collection/costume-and-textiles.
“MFA Boston | David and Roberta Logie Department of Textile and Fashion Arts.” Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, n.d. http://www.mfa.org/collections/textiles-and-fashion-arts.
“MUM Museu Da Moda de Canela.” Canela, Brazil, n.d. http://www.museudamodadecanela.com.br/.
“Museo Costumbrista (Folkloric Museum).” Sucre, Bolivia, n.d. http://www.sucrelife.com/places/museo-costumbrista-folkloric-museum/.
“Museo de La Historia Del Traje.” Buenos Aires, Argentina, n.d. https://museodeltraje.cultura.gob.ar/.
“Museo de La Moda.” Santiago, Chile, n.d. http://www.museodelamoda.cl/.
“Museo de Trajes.” Bogotá, Columbia, n.d. http://museodetrajesregionales.com/.
“Museum | Fashion Institute of Technology.” New York, n.d. https://www.fitnyc.edu/museum/.
“Museum of the City of New York,” n.d. http://www.mcny.org/collections/costume-textiles.
“Philadelphia Museum of Art - Research : Costume & Textiles Study Room,” n.d. http://www.philamuseum.org/research/619-534.html.
“Rhode Island School of Design | Costume & Textiles.” Providence, Rhode Island, n.d. https://risdmuseum.org/art_design/objects/.
“Royal Ontario Museum | Patricia Harris Gallery of Textiles & Costume.” Toronto, n.d. https://www.rom.on.ca/en/exhibitions-galleries/galleries/world-cultures/patricia-harris-gallery-textiles-costume.
“Texas Fashion Collection | University of North Texas.” Accessed July 23, 2019. https://tfc.unt.edu/.
“Textiles and Costumes | Henry Art Gallery.” Seattle, n.d. http://dig.henryart.org/textiles/.
“The Costume Institute | The Metropolitan Museum of Art.” New York, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/about-the-met/curatorial-departments/the-costume-institute.
“The Design Center @ Philadelphia University,” n.d. http://thedesigncenter.tumblr.com/?og=1.
“Vassar College Costume Collection.” Poughkeepsie, New York, n.d. http://vcomeka.com/vccc/.
Fashion Museums & Collections - Asia
“Kobe Fashion Museum.” Kobe, Japan, n.d. http://www.fashionmuseum.or.jp/english.
“The Kyoto Costume Institute,” n.d. http://www.kci.or.jp/.
Fashion Museums & Collections - Europe
“Bayerisches Nationalmuseum - Textilien.” Munich, Germany, n.d. http://www.bayerisches-nationalmuseum.de/index.php?id=293.
“Europeana: Fashion.” Europeana Collections, n.d. https://www.europeana.eu/portal/en/collections/fashion.
“Fashion & Lace Museum.” Brussels, n.d. http://www.costumeandlacemuseum.brussels/en/home.
“Fashion and Textile Museum.” London, n.d. http://www.ftmlondon.org/.
“Galleria Del Costume - Pitti Palace,” n.d. http://www.museumsinflorence.com/musei/costume_gallery.html.
“Germanisches National Museum -Textiles and Jewellery.” Nuremberg, Germany, n.d. https://www.gnm.de/en/collections/sammlungen-a-z/textiles-and-jewellery/.
“Livrustkammaren.” Stockholm, n.d. http://livrustkammaren.se/en/explore/collections.
“Manchester Art Gallery | Costume.” United Kingdom, n.d. http://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/our-collections/costume/.
“MK&G | Fashion.” Hamburg, Germany, n.d. http://www.mkg-hamburg.de/en/sammlung/schwerpunkte/mode.html.
“ModeMuseum.” Antwerp, Belgium, n.d. https://www.momu.be/en.html.
“Modemuseum Hasselt.” Belgium, n.d. http://www.modemuseumhasselt.be/#/collectienieuw.
“MUDE | Museu do design e da moda.” Lisbon, n.d. http://www.mude.pt/.
“Musée des arts décoratifs.” Paris, n.d. http://madparis.fr/en/.
“Museu Do Traje.” Lisbon, n.d. http://www.museudotraje.gov.pt/en-gb/default.aspx.
“Museum of Palazzo Mocenigo.” Venice, n.d. http://mocenigo.visitmuve.it/en/home/.
“Nasjonalmuseet.” Oslo, Norway, n.d. http://www.nasjonalmuseet.no/en/.
“National Museum of Denmark.” Copenhagen, n.d. https://en.natmus.dk/museums-and-palaces/the-national-museum-of-denmark/.
“Nordiska Museet.” Stockholm, n.d. https://www.nordiskamuseet.se/en/exhibitions.
“Palais Galliera | Musée de la mode de la Ville de Paris.” Paris, n.d. http://www.palaisgalliera.paris.fr/en/node.
“Röhsska Museum | Fashion and Costume Collection.” Gothenburg, Sweden, n.d. http://rohsska.se/en/samlingen/vara-samlingar/859/.
“TextielMuseum.” Tilburg, Netherlands, n.d. http://www.textielmuseum.nl/en/.
“The Fashion Museum.” Bath, England, n.d. https://www.fashionmuseum.co.uk/homepage.
“Victoria and Albert Museum - Fashion.” London, n.d. https://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/fashion.
“Wien Museum | Modesammlung.” Vienna, Austria, n.d. http://www.wienmuseum.at/de/sammlungen/geschichte-und-stadtleben/modesammlung.html.
Textile Museums
“Chojun Textile & Quilt Art Museum.” Seoul, South Korea, n.d. http://english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/ATR/SI_EN_3_1_1_1.jsp?cid=1215623.
“Mississippi Valley Textile Museum.” Almonte, Ontario, n.d. http://mvtm.ca/.
“Musée des tissus / Musée des arts décoratifs de Lyon.” Lyon, France, n.d. http://www.mtmad.fr/fr/Pages/default.aspx.
“Museo de Textiles Andinos Bolivianos.” La Paz, Bolivia, n.d. http://museodetextiles.org/en/home/.
“Museo Textil de Oaxaca.” Oaxaca, Mexico, n.d. http://www.museotextildeoaxaca.org.mx/.
“Parc de Wesserling » Ecomusée Du Textile,” n.d. https://www.parc-wesserling.fr/.
“San Jose Museum of Quilts & Textiles.” San Jose, n.d. https://www.sjquiltmuseum.org/.
“Textile Museum of Canada.” Toronto, n.d. http://www.textilemuseum.ca/home.
“Textiles | The Art Institute of Chicago,” n.d. http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/textiles.
“Textilmuseet - Textilmuseet.” Text. Borås, Sweden, n.d. http://textilmuseet.se.
“Textilmuseum.” St. Gallen, Switzerland, n.d. http://www.textilmuseum.ch/en/.
“The George Washington University Museum and The Textile Museum.” Washington, DC, n.d. https://museum.gwu.edu/.

Online Sources

For Runway Images
“Europeana Collections - Fashion,” n.d. https://www.europeana.eu/portal/en/collections/fashion.
“FirstVIEW,” n.d. http://firstview.com/.
“NY Magazine - The Cut,” n.d. http://www.thecut.com/runway/.
“Vogue - Runway,” n.d. https://www.vogue.com/fashion-shows.
“WWD - Runway,” n.d. http://wwd.com/runway/.
For Designer Biographies
“British Vogue - Biographies,” n.d. http://www.vogue.co.uk/topic/biography.
“Fashion History | The Business of Fashion,” n.d. https://www.businessoffashion.com/education/collection/fashion-history.
“The 500 People Shaping the Global Fashion Industry | Business of Fashion,” n.d. https://www.businessoffashion.com/community/bof500/2017.
“Vintage Fashion Guild: Featured Designers,” n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/featured-designers/.
Research Databases (Subscription)
“Bloomsbury Fashion Central - Berg Fashion Library,” n.d. https://www.bloomsburyfashioncentral.com/products/berg-fashion-library.
“Bloomsbury Fashion Central - Fashion Photography Archive,” n.d. https://www.bloomsburyfashioncentral.com/products/fashion-photography-archive.
“Fashion Studies Online: The Videofashion Library,” n.d. https://alexanderstreet.com/products/fashion-studies-online-videofashion-library.
“Gale Virtual Reference Library (GVRL),” n.d. https://www.cengage.com/search/showresults.do?N=197+4294917622+4294904997.
“Oxford Art Online,” n.d. http://www.oxfordartonline.com/.