OVERVIEW

During the 1870s, women’s clothing became increasingly complex, colorful, and restrictive, while menswear was marked by an industrious sobriety.

Womenswear

During the late 1860s, the volume of the skirt had begun to swing backwards, a departure from the circular skirts of the mid-century. This trend became fully realized in the 1870s, with the focus of clothing concentrated at the back, as skirts projected backwards and fell flat against the body in the front. The decade saw two distinct silhouettes in womenswear, both maintaining the focus on the back of the skirt.

The first silhouette of the decade began in 1870; the great, circular or oval crinolines of previous decades collapsed into the so-called first bustle style (Fig. 1) . The bustle was a softly draped protrusion at the back of the waist, created by a manipulation of fabric and drapery (Tortora 386). This sloped bustle style was supported by horsehair-ruffled petticoats or crinolettes, an adaption of the earlier steel crinolines (Fig. 2). A crinolette consisted of rows of fabric-covered steel half-hoops (Cumming 35; Shrimpton 17-18). Bustled dresses of this period were frothy confections, with layers of ruffles, pleats, and gathers. Many featured looped overskirts or long bodices that were draped up over the hips; these were often referred to as “polonaise” style dresses (Willett Cunnington 261). Fashion historian James Laver quotes a contemporary writer who declared in 1876:

“it is now impossible to describe dresses with exactitude: the skirts are draped so mysteriously, the arrangements of trimmings is usually so one-sided and the fastenings are so curiously contrived that if I study any particular toilette for even a quarter of an hour the task of writing down how it is all made remains hopeless.” (Laver 190)

The silhouette of the first half of the 1870s was also defined by a higher than natural waistline and lower sloped shoulders (Severa 329). In the first years of the decade, the bell-shaped sleeves of the 1860s continued to be seen (Fig. 3) (Willett Cunnington 258). Bodices were frequently quite as decorated as the skirts. Daytime bodices had high necklines, as was customary throughout most of the nineteenth century. During the early 1870s though, it became common for day bodices to open at the front into a V-neck or square neckline (Fig. 4). These open necklines were almost always trimmed with ruffles, ribbons, lace, or braid, usually echoing the trim of the skirt. Importantly, these revealing necklines caused a trend for prominent necklaces such as velvet chokers and jet pendants (Shrimpton 18-19).

Dinner dress

Fig. 1 - Designer unknown (American). Dinner dress, 1870. Silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.631a, b. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Women's Cage Crinolette Petticoat

Fig. 2 - Designer unknown (English). Women's Cage Crinolette Petticoat, 1872-1875. Wool plain weave, cotton plain weave, cotton-braid-covered steel, cotton twill tape, and wool-braid trim. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, M.2007.211.388. Purchased with funds provided by Suzanne A. Saperstein and Michael and Ellen Michelson. Source: Los Angeles County Museum of Art

The Fair Toxophilites

Fig. 3 - William Powell Frith (English, 1819-1909). The Fair Toxophilites, 1872. Oil on canvas; (38.6 x 32.1 in). Exeter, U.K.: Royal Albert Memorial Museum. Source: Wikimedia

Mary 'Patsy' Cornwallis-West

Fig. 4 - Alexander Bassano (English, 1829-1913). Mary 'Patsy' Cornwallis-West, 1873. Albumen print; 8.9 x 5.4 cm. London: Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 2911730. Source: Royal Collection Trust

Evening

Fig. 5 - James Tissot (French, 1836-1902). Evening, 1878. Oil on canvas; 91 x 51 cm. Paris: Musee D'Orsay, RF 2253. Source: Wikimedia

Two-Piece Walking dress

Fig. 6 - Designer unknown (possibly Italian). Two-Piece Walking dress, 1878-1880. Wool, silk. Florence: Costume Gallery of Palazzo Pitti. Source: Europeana Collections

Corset

Fig. 7 - Designer unknown (American?). Corset, 1875-1885. Silk, cotton. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 2013.616. Gift of Mary Finnegan. Source: Museum of Fine Arts

The second silhouette of the 1870s began around 1876 (Laver 196). The bustle collapsed into the the “princess line” style (Fig. 5). Named for Alexandra, Princess of Wales, who popularized the look, it consisted of a dress without a horizontal waist seam, fitted instead with long, vertical tucks and darts to create an extremely slim, body-conscious look (Fukai 126, 214). Similarly, the princess line was echoed in the cuirass bodice (Fig. 6); it did not have a waistline seam and was lengthened to fit over the hips (Cumming 61; Tortora 386). Snug around the hips, princess line dresses and cuirass bodices lacked a bustle, with volume instead spilling from below the hips, and sometimes from below the knees. This fullness could extend into long trains, even on day dresses (Willett Cunnington 256).

The waistline dropped to the natural waist in princess line looks. Additionally, shoulder seams began to creep slowly upwards, and sleeves tightened, further accentuating the long, slim line. This newly figure-framing style required more severe corsetry (Fig. 7). Corsets lengthened over the hips to secure the body into the fashionable slim princess silhouette (Phillis Cunnington 179). The new process of steam-molding created corsets that fiercely formed the female body (Shrimpton 20). Additionally, the tightly fitted gowns required less bulky undergarments, and ladies began wearing combinations, a single garment that connected the chemise and drawers. While combinations had been available as early as the late 1850s, they only became commonly chosen in the 1870s (Tortora 386).

Throughout the decade, dresses generally followed the nineteenth-century customs delineating morning, afternoon, and evening wear. The chief differences were in the cut of the neckline and the length of sleeves (Font 26-28). Note the evening gowns in Beraud’s Une soirée (Fig. 4 below). It was not uncommon to have two bodices for each skirt, a day and an evening option (Coleman 45; Tortora 390). Outerwear changed during this period from earlier decades. Previously, shawls and capes had been the most fashionable, but the new bustle styles were better served by coats and jackets (Fig. 8). Some even borrowed from menswear styles; both the chesterfield, with its signature velvet collar, and the caped ulster became fashionable choices for women (Cumming 46, 213; Shrimpton 21; Tortora 392).

The Young Ladies Journal: Latest Parisian Winter Fashions

Fig. 8 - Artist unknown. The Young Ladies Journal: Latest Parisian Winter Fashions, October 1878. Lithograph. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, E.515-1935. Given by Mrs. W.F.A. Ellison.. Source: Victoria & Albert Museum

Day dress

Fig. 9 - Designer unknown (American). Day dress, 1870. Silk taffeta and velvet. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 64.1003a. Gift of Mrs. Henry P. Kendall. Source: Museum of Fine Arts

The first synthetic dye was invented in 1856 (Fukai 212) and by the 1870s, vivid, sometimes garish, colors were quite common and fashionable (Fig. 9). Bright purples, pinks, blues, and yellows could now be achieved with a vibrancy and permanence that had been impossible with natural dyes of previous eras. Frequently, a dress featured multiple colors, alternating between the bodice and trim, and layered bustle skirts (Shrimpton 19). Indeed, fashion historian C. Willett Cunnington wrote, “It is perhaps in their colors that the dresses of the ‘70s are most striking to the eye; the monochrome has vanished.” (Willet Cunnington 254) Trims became increasingly heavy as well; dresses were weighed down with flounces, bows, laces, tassels, braid, etc. All of these elements combined to create some of the most complex fashions of the century (Willett Cunnington 255).

This complexity and restriction led to the introduction of tea gowns in the early 1870s. Meant to be worn at home, perhaps with female friends, these dresses were loose and allowed the wearer to forgivingly loosen their corset, or go without a corset altogether (Fig. 10) (Tortora 387). By the end of the decade, tea gowns could be elaborately trimmed with cascades of lace and frills (Laver 193). Some argue that the princess line developed from tea gowns, as they were usually made without a waist seam (Coleman 47).

Tea Gown

Fig. 10 - Designer unknown (American). Tea Gown, 1875-1880. Silk, cotton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.3856a–c. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Clara Morris

Fig. 11 - Photographer unknown. Clara Morris, ca. 1878-1880. New York: New York Public Library, *T PHO A. Source: New York Public Library

Throughout the decade, bonnets, defined by the strings tied around the chin (Cumming 26), were seen alongside the ever more fashionable hat, differentiated by its lack of strings. By the 1880s, the bonnet was relegated to Sunday best ensembles and older women (Ginsburg 91). Hairstyles were elaborate during the first half of the 1870s. Women’s hair, usually parted in the center and waved around the face, was piled up in an intricate knots and braids with cascades of curls falling down the back; false hair was generally worn (Willett Cunnington 296). This “waterfall hairstyle” pushed headwear up and forward to perch over the forehead (Figs. 3-4)(Tortora 393). These precariously tipped hats and bonnets were frequently heavily trimmed with falls of flowers and ribbons. The tumbling trim and curls echoed the softly draped bustle (Laver 191). Hairstyles simplified with the introduction of the princess line, and by the end of the decade, hair was worn in high, tight chignons without loose curls. Sometimes, a short curly fringe was cut in the front (Shrimpton 22). With the new, neat hairstyles, hats took on more definite shapes, created out of dense felts and straws (Fig. 11). In her history of millinery, Madeliene Ginsburg noted that “the trimmings were architectural in their clarity of form but naturalistic, horticultural, zoological, and even entomological in content” (Ginsburg 92).

Fashion icon: Alexandra, Princess of wales

Alexandra, Princess of Wales, and later Queen of England, held a uniquely powerful influence over nineteenth century fashion (Fig. 1). Born in 1844 in Denmark, Alexandra wed Queen Victoria’s eldest son, Albert Edward on March 10, 1863. She immediately captured the attention of the public, and quickly became beloved by the British people, a population starved for royal youth and glamour (Strasdin introduction). By the 1870s, Alexandra’s importance in nineteenth-century fashion was such that the “princess line” was named for her (Coleman 48; Fukai 126). Her trim figure was the beauty ideal of the time and was displayed to fantastic effect in this new style, which she did much to popularize it (Fig. 2). She was also associated with the emergence of the preference for tight chignons and curled fringe in the late 1870s (Shrimpton 22). Alexandra even kept up to date with the latest trends in color, never shying away from the newest bright hues (Strasdin ch. 3).

Throughout her life, especially during the 1870s and 1880s when she was at the height of her sartorial powers, Alexandra used opulent and fashionable dress to great effect. In contrast to the aging Queen Victoria, Alexandra kept a busy social calendar, always appearing in the latest mode. While Victoria dressed in British mourning fashion, Alexandra frequently bought and wore Parisian couture. Her modish, youthful style breathed new life into the British monarchy (Strasdin introduction). Fashion historian Kate Strasdin argues that Alexandra’s popularity, supported through her clothing choices, may have had outsized effects on the stability of the monarchy, writing:

“As the epitome of a ‘princess’ her clever clothing choices meant that she was both regal as the event required, or through a general conformity of style she made herself more available as a public figure in a way that Victoria had ceased to be.”

Alexandra, Princess of Wales, with Princess Louise

Fig. 1 - W & D Downey. Alexandra, Princess of Wales, with Princess Louise, September 1870. Albumen print; 8.5 x 5.5 cm. London: Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 2902294. Source: Royal Collection Trust

Princess Alexandra

Fig. 2 - Unknown Photographer. Princess Alexandra, ca. 1878. Source: Pinterest

Menswear

Sir David Baird, 3rd Bt

Fig. 1 - Alexander Bassano (English, 1829-1913). Sir David Baird, 3rd Bt, ca. 1873. Glass negative. London: National Portrait Gallery, NPG x127994. Source: National Portrait Gallery

Morning coat, vest and trousers

Fig. 2 - Designer unknown. Morning coat, vest and trousers, 1873-1875. Cotton, silk, wool. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, T.3-1982. Source: Victoria & Albert Museum

In 1871, a tailoring trade journal observed, “Gentlemen dress as quietly as it is possible to do and there are no extremes in dress” (Shrimpton 35). Indeed, menswear in the 1870s was marked by sobriety and understated style. The overall silhouette slimmed a bit from the boxy, oversized jackets of the 1860s. Shirts became plain, no longer pleated and heavily starched, which only underscored the crisp, clean line (Tortora 401). Men cropped their hair shorter than earlier years, and wore it neatly parted. A clean-shaven face was rare; full “muttonchop” whiskers or trim mustaches were the mode. Fashion historian Jayne Shrimpton wrote:

“the average middle-class businessman carefully avoided exagerrated or effeminate fashions. With a gold watch chain displayed prominently across his waistcoat front, and bushy mutton-chop whiskers or a beard lending an air of authority, the sober-suited Victorian male aimed for a respectable, efficient, industrious image.” (36)

The basic elements of menswear remained generally the same. The frock coat (Fig. 1), featuring a waist seam with a full skirt (Cumming 87), was the most formal daywear for business or formal calls in town (Laver 202; Shrimpton 37). In the first half of the decade, there was a trend for very short frock coats, with hemlines well above the knees (Foster 99). A less stuffy choice was the morning coat, a cutaway jacket with a waist seam (Cumming 135). During the 1870s, the morning coat, single or double-breasted, featured three or four buttons, and could be bound with silk braid for an elegant finish (Fig. 2). The morning coat possessed a surprising versatility, becoming formal when tailored in dark cloth paired with grey trousers or stylishly relaxed when made in tweed (Shrimpton 37).

Finally, the sack or lounge suit was increasingly fashionable, particularly among the working classes. The sack jacket, marked by its lack of a waist seam, was often paired with a matching waistcoat and trousers to make a coordinated suit (Fig. 3) (Tortora 401). This suit, most often worn with a plain white shirt featuring a turn-down collar and a four-in-hand tie, arguably formed the foundation for the modern three-piece suit (Shrimpton 37). Evening occasions called for the formal black tailcoat, featuring knee-length tails, a matching double-breasted waistcoat, starched white shirt and bow tie, and black trousers, usually with braid down the outer side seams (Fig. 4) (Tortora 402).

Gentleman's Magazine Fashion Plate

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown. Gentleman's Magazine Fashion Plate, 1876. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, E.978-1946. Source: Victoria & Albert Museum

Une soiree, detail

Fig. 4 - Jean Béraud (French, 1849-1935). Une soiree, detail, 1878. Oil on canvas; 65 x 117 cm. Paris: Musee D'Orsay, RF 1994 15. Source: Musee D'Orsay

Paul Hugot

Fig. 5 - Gustave Caillebotte (French, 1848-1894). Paul Hugot, 1878. Oil on canvas. Private Collection. Source: Wikimedia

The chesterfield coat, edged with braid and silk velvet facings (Cumming 46), was the most popular form of outerwear, cut knee-length in the 1870s (Fig. 5) (Tortora 402). The top frock was an outer garment cut along the same lines as the frock coat underneath. Both the Inverness and Ulster coats featured attached capes, sometimes detachable (Laver 205; Tortora 402-403). For sporting, the double-breasted reefer jacket was increasingly worn (Fig. 6) (Laver 202). Regarding headwear, the top hat was the most formal style, worn with frock coats, fancy morning suits, and in the evening. The more democratic bowler hat was fashionable with morning and sack suits. (Tortora 403). Accessories and jewelry were simple and elegant, including the four-in-hand necktie, a silk cravat fastened with a stick-pin, and a gold watch chain strung across the waistcoat (Shrimpton 36-38).

Prince Leopold

Fig. 6 - Thomas Rodger (Scottish, 1832-1883). Prince Leopold, October 1876. Albumen print; 13.8 x 9 cm. London: Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 2903079. Source: Royal Collection Trust

CHILDREN’S WEAR

Miss Nellie Grant with Baby

Fig. 1 - Photographer unknown. Miss Nellie Grant with Baby, 1876. Glass negative. Washington D.C.: Library of Congress, LC-BH826-1429. Source: Library of Congress

In the 1870s, as throughout most of the nineteenth century, boys and girls were almost indistinguishable from one another during infancy and toddlerhood (Olian v). Babies were dressed in white linen or cotton gowns with high necks and long sleeves (Fig. 1), reflecting the burgeoning attitude that newborns required extra warmth. As the child became old enough to walk, they progressed into short dresses usually featuring rows of tucks and smocking (Fig. 2) (Shrimpton 43).

Young girls simply echoed the fashions of adult women, with a shorter hemline that gradually fell to the floor through their adolescence (Olian 25-27). The early 1870s padded bustle effect was seen in girls’ dresses with looped overskirts and large bows, all made in the bright colors and heavy trims that their mothers wore (Fig. 3) (Severa 345; Shrimpton 52). When the princess line came into vogue, girls dresses reflected that trend as well, collapsing into a narrow tube with tight sleeves. Frequently, the slim line was emphasized with a contrasting panel running down the center of the dress or bodice (Fig. 4) (Rose 85). Girls wore their hair long and curled, sometimes with a fringe in the front, similar to the waterfall hairstyle worn by adult women. In the late 1870s, when adult hairstyles became neatly tucked up into chignons, girls began wearing their hair up when they reached young adulthood, around sixteen years old. A young girl’s accessories, from jewelry to millinery, also reflected adult fashions (Olian iv).

Children of the Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh: Princess Marie, Princess Victoria, Prince Alfred

Fig. 2 - G Formosa. Children of the Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh: Princess Marie, Princess Victoria, Prince Alfred, March 1878. Albumen print; 14.4 x 9.4 cm. London: Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 2903204. Source: Royal Collection Trust

Mademoiselle Sabine

Fig. 3 - Carolus Duran (French, 1837-1917). Mademoiselle Sabine, 1875. Source: Pinterest

Girl's dress

Fig. 4 - Designer unknown. Girl's dress, ca. 1878. Silk. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, AC1999.46.22. Gift of Helen Larson. Source: Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Unidentified Boy

Fig. 5 - Abraham Bogardus (American, 1822-1908). Unidentified Boy, ca. 1875. Albumen print; (3.75 x 2.25 in). New York: New York Public Library, 92PH020.496. Source: New York Public Library

Around the age of five, boys were “breeched,” a rite of passage in which they are given their first pair of pants. After that, boys wore various suits, often distinguished from adult versions only by the length of the trousers. Boys wore knickerbockers, which buckled or buttoned under the knee. Like adult menswear, boys suits narrowed in the 1870s (Shrimpton 45-47). A common choice was a version of the adult sack suit (Fig. 5) (Olian 29). Alternately, knickerbockers paired with a matching belted jacket was fashionable (Mager 76). As throughout the second half of the nineteenth century, sailor suits were very popular for young boys. An example can be seen in figure 3 in the Menswear section above. Interestingly, the 1870s saw a particular trend for silk plush and velvet fabrics in boys’ clothing (Fig. 6) (Shrimpton 47). In adolescence, boys graduated to long trousers and began to look very much like their fathers (Tortora 405).

Boy's Suit

Fig. 6 - Designer unknown. Boy's Suit, 1870-1879. Cotton velvet. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1976.60.8a–d. Purchase, Irene Lewisohn Bequest, 1976. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

References:

Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1870-1879
Rulers:

Europe, 1871. Source: Omniatlas

Events:
  • 1870 – Italy united
  • 1870-71 – Prussians besiege Paris
  • 1871 – Germany united under the Second Reich
  • 1872 – The marcel wave is first developed by hairdresser Francois Marcel, and remains popular for more than 50 years.
  • 1873 – First color photos appear
  • 1874 – Impressionists hold first group show
  • 1875 – Liberty Co department store opens in London.
  • 1876 – Bell patents telephone
  • 1879 – Edison invents the electric lightbulb

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Arthur’s Illustrated Home Magazine. Vol. 39. T.S. Arthur and Son, 1872. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074636088.
Arthur’s Illustrated Home Magazine. Vol. 39. T.S. Arthur and Son, 1872. http://books.google.com/books?id=v5bNAAAAMAAJ&.
Arthur’s Illustrated Home Magazine. Vol. 43. T.S. Arthur and Son, 1875. http://books.google.com/books?id=GJfNAAAAMAAJ.
Arthur’s Illustrated Home Magazine. Vol. 43. T.S. Arthur and Son, 1875. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015023133716.
Arthur’s Illustrated Home Magazine. Vol. 47. T.S. Arthur and Son, 1879. http://books.google.com/books?id=9VTQAAAAMAAJ.
Beeton’s Book of Needlework. London: Ward, Lock and Tyler, 1870. http://books.google.com/books?id=lxHdK1ds8twC\.
Bow Bells. Vol. 18. London: John Dicks, 1873. https://books.google.com/books?id=mcwaAQAAMAAJ.
Bow Bells. Vol. 10. London: John Dicks, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=k70aAQAAMAAJ.
Bow Bells. Vol. 11. London: John Dicks, 1870. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.319510007314801.
Bow Bells. Vol. 13. London: John Dicks, 1870. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951000731482x.
Bow Bells. Vol. 13. London: John Dicks, 1871. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951000731482x.
Bow Bells. Vol. 15. London: John Dicks, 1872. https://books.google.com/books?id=hD8lAQAAMAAJ.
Bow Bells. Vol. 16. London: John Dicks, 1872. https://books.google.com/books?id=EMsaAQAAMAAJ.
Bow Bells. Vol. 17. London: John Dicks, 1873. https://books.google.com/books?id=GcwaAQAAMAAJ.
Bow Bells. Vol. 19. London: John Dicks, 1873. https://books.google.com/books?id=ncsaAQAAMAAJ.
Demorest’s Family Magazine. Demorest Publishing Company, 1879. https://books.google.com/books?id=QGtNAQAAIAAJ.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1872. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2997548.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1874. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3019636.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1870. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2996927.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1871. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2976235.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1873. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3019376.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1875. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2912012.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1876. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2916191.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1877. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2979191.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1878. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3019205.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 27. New York, 1870. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676334.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 31. New York, 1872. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676359.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 28. New York, 1871. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676342.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 36. New York, 1875. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676383.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 40. New York, 1877. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676391.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 41. New York, 1877. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676409.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 42. New York, 1878. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676417.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 44. New York, 1879. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676433.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 32. New York, 1873. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676367.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 35. New York, 1874. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676375.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 43. New York, 1878. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676425.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 80–81. Philadelphia, 1870. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015027389348.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 82–83. Philadelphia, 1871. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00322056l.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 84–85. Philadelphia, 1872. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015010806621.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 86–87. Philadelphia, 1873. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015030870227.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 88. Philadelphia, 1874. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.30000108702816.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 91. Philadelphia, 1875. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015004111087.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 92. Philadelphia, 1876. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015014112935.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 93. Philadelphia, 1876. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015034639941.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
A member of the aristocracy. Manners and Tone of Good Society. Or, Solecisms to Be Avoided. London: F. Warne and co., 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007958573.
Brinton, Daniel Garrison, and George H. Napheys. The Laws of Health in Relation to the Human Form. Personal Health. Springfield, Mass.: W.J. Holland, 1870. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011609586.
Cheadle, Eliza. Manners of Modern Society: Being a Book of Etiquette. London ; New York: Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1892. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011159363.
Duffey, Eliza Bisbee. The Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s Etiquette: A Complete Manual of the Manners and Dress of American Society. Philadelphia: Porter and Coates, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007126751.
Fox, George Patrick. [from old catalog]. Fashion: The Power That Influences the World. New York: American news company; [etc., etc.], 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011204646.
Gow, Alexander M. Good Morals and Gentle Manners. For Schools and Families. Cincinnati, New York: Van ANtwerp, Bragg & co., 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/002434282.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness: A Complete Handbook for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society. Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008679158.
Johnson, S. O., and Cairns Collection of American Women Writers. A Manual of Etiquette with Hints on Politeness and Good Breeding. Philadelphia: D. McKay, 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777095.
Kernan, James. Perfect Etiquette, or, How to Behave in Society: A Complete Manual for Ladies and Gentlemen ... New York: A. Cogswell, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100485515.
Moore, Bloomfield H. Sensible Etiquette of the Best Society, Customs, Manners, Morals, and Home Culture. Philadelphia: Porter and Coates, 1878. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007957836.
Powers, S. D. Behaving: Or, Papers on Children’s Etiquette. Boston: D. Lothrop, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100557991.
Ruth, John A., and C. S. Snyder. Decorum, a Practical Treatise on Etiquette and Dress of the BestAmerican Society. Chicago: J.A. Ruth, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007671336.
Thornwell, Emily., and J.B. Lippincott & Co. The Lady’s Guide to Perfect Gentility: In Manners, Dress, and Conversation, in the Family, in Company, at the Piano-Forte, the Table, in the Street, and in Gentlemen’s Society ; Also a Useful Instructor in Letter Writing, Toilet Preparations, Fancy Needlework, Millinery, Dressmaking, Care of Wardrobe, the Hair, Teeth, Hands, Lips, Complexion, Etc. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1876. http://hdl.handle.net/10111/UIUCBB:thorem0001ladgui.
Tomes, Robert. The Bazar Book of Decorum. The Care of the Person, Manners, Etiquette, and Ceremonials ... New York: Harper & Brothers, 1870. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/102133514.
Wells, Samuel R. How to Behave; a Pocket Manual of Republican Etiquette, and Guide to Correct Personal Habits... Hand-Books for Home Improvement,No. III. New York: S. R. Wells, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921276.
La Vraie Politesse et Le Bon Ton plus Particuliè Rement à l’usage Des Élèves Des Collèges, Pensionnats, Etc., Etc., et de Tous Ceux Qui Entrent Dans La Société. CIHM/ICMH Microfiche Series = CIHM/ICMH Collection de Microfiches ;No. 36736. Montréal? s.n.], 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100275186.
High-Life: Usi e Costumi Della Vita Elegante, 1879. Milano: Direzione generale della Raccolta Daugnon, 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100223990.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen: With Thougts, Hints and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances, Nice Points of Taste and Good Manners ... Hand-Books of Society ;2. New York: G.W. Carleton, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012454830.
The Manners That Win. Minneapolis: Buckeye Pub. Co., 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012393095.
Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=FSgGAAAAQAAJ.
Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=ziIGAAAAQAAJ.
Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1871. http://dbooks.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/books/PDFs/555043828.pdf.
Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1873. https://books.google.com/books?id=7SIGAAAAQAAJ.
Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1873. http://dbooks.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/books/PDFs/555043829.pdf.
Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1875. http://dbooks.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/books/PDFs/555043830.pdf.
The Gentleman’s Magazine of Fashion. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Company, 1873. https://books.google.com/books?id=_xcGAAAAQAAJ.
The Gentleman’s Magazine of Fashion. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Company, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=wRcGAAAAQAAJ.
The Gentleman’s Magazine of Fashion. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Company, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=4BcGAAAAQAAJ.
The Gentleman’s Magazine of Fashion. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Company, 1878. https://books.google.com/books?id=SBgGAAAAQAAJ.
Hartley, Cecil B. The Gentlemen’s Book of Etiquette and Manual of Politeness: Being a Complete Guide for a Gentleman’s Conduct in All His Relations towards Society: Containing Rules for the Etiquette to Be Observed in the Street, at Table, in the Ball Room, Evening Party, and Morning Call: With Full Directions for Polite Correspndence, Dress, Conversation, Manly Exercises, and Accomplishments: From the Best French, English, and American Authorities. Boston: Locke, 1871. http://hdl.handle.net/10111/UIUCBB:hartce0001genboo.
Hartley, Cecil B. The Gentlemen’s Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness: Being a Complete Guide for a Gentleman’s Conduct in All His Relations towards Society. Boston: Locke, 1871. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100605672.
The West-End Gazette of Gentlemen’s Fashions. Vol. 11, 1873. https://books.google.com/books?id=3RUGAAAAQAAJ.
The West-End Gazette of Gentlemen’s Fashions. Vol. 8, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=sxUGAAAAQAAJ.

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

Online
Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
“Chronology.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
“Fashion Timeline: 1870 To 1880.” Vintage Fashion Guild, n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1870-to-1880/.
“History of Fashion 1840 - 1900.” Victoria and Albert Museum, July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
“Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion.” Victoria and Albert Museum, January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
“Victorian Era: First Bustle and Natural Form (1870-1883).” History of Fashion and Dress, n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/firstbustle.html.
Books/Articles
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Blanc, Charles. Art in Ornament and Dress. New York: Scribner Welford and Armstrong, 1877. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/903437797.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Burnham, Helen. “Fashion and the Representation of Modernity: Studies in the Late Work of Édouard Manet (1832-1883).” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/226381287.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
Crawford, William T. [from old catalog. Crawford’s System on the Science and Art of Garment Cutting. [Providence?, 1874. http://archive.org/details/crawfordssystemo00craw.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
De Young, Justine. “Fashion and the Press.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 233–43. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Dombrowski, André. “The Emperor’s Last Clothes: Cézanne, Fashion and ‘l’année Terrible.’” Burlington Magazine 148, no. 1242 (September 2006): 586–94. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20074554.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Flamant-Paparatti, Danielle. Bien Pensantes, Cocodettes et Bas Bleus : La Femme Bourgeoise à Travers La Presse Féminine et Familiale (1873-1887). Paris: Denoël, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/906468967.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Furbank, Philip Nicholas, and Alex M. Cain. Mallarmé on Fashion: A Translation of the Fashion Magazine, Le Dernière Mode, with Commentary. New York: Berg, 2004. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/936905110.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Glencross, William [from old catalog. A Scientific Guide to Practical Cutting. New York, W. Glencross, 1873. http://archive.org/details/scientificguidet00glen.
Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hambourg, Maria Morris. Nadar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851034965.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
Koch, Augustus [from old catalog. The Cutters’ Centennial Guide; Poughkeepsie, N.Y. [Printed at the office of the Poughkeepsie telegraph and daily press], 1876. http://archive.org/details/cutterscentennia00koch.
Lambert, Miles. Fashion in Photographs 1860-1880. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300306371.
Lansdell, Avril. Fashion à La Carte, 1860-1900: A Study of Fashion through Cartes-de-Visite. History in Camera. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/436041340.
Linthicum, William O. [from old catalog. Divisional and Exact Measurement Systems for Garment Cutting. New York, Morgan, Comes & Lawrence, stationers and printers, 1872. http://archive.org/details/divisionalexactm00lint.
Linthicum, William O. [from old catalog]. Divisional and Exact Measurement Systems for Garment Cutting. New York: Lawrence & Allen, stationers and printers, 1876. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009584972.
MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Grace Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Samuel Sachs. Whistler, Women, & Fashion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/757386204.
Madison, J. O. (James Otis). Elements of Garment Cutting. Hartford, Conn., The Case, Lockwood & Brainard company, printers, 1878. http://archive.org/details/elementsofgarmen00madi.
Maeder, Edward, and Evelyn Ackerman, eds. Dressed for the Country, 1860-1900: Exhibition. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/562356615.
Matheson, H. [from old catalog. H. Matheson’s Scientific and Practical Guide for the Tailor’s Cutting Department. New York, H. Matheson, 1871. http://archive.org/details/hmathesonsscient00math.
Matheson, H. [from old catalog]. H. Matheson’s Scientific and Practical Guide for the Tailor’s Cutting Department. New York: H. Matheson, 1871. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009590484.
Matyjaszkiewicz, Krystyna. “Costume in Tissot’s Pictures.” In James Tissot, 64–77. Oxford: Phaidon, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630471252.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “Photography, Fashion, and the Cult of Appearances.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 197–207. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Muller, Florence, Farid Chenoune, and Phillippe Thiébaut. Dior Impressions: The Inspiration and Influence of Impressionism at the House of Dior. New York: Rizzoli, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876440735.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. 80 Godey’s Full-Color Fashion Plates, 1838-1880. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/868271404.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. Full-Color Victorian Fashions, 1870-1893. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1999. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/40838676.
Piazza, Arianna, ed. Fashion 150: 150 Years, 150 Designers. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/961459695.
Ribeiro, Aileen. “The Art of Dress: Fashion in Renoir’s La Loge.” In Renoir at the Theatre: Looking at La Loge, edited by Ernst Vegelin van Claerbergen and Barnaby Wright, 45–63. London: The Courtauld Gallery, 2008. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/938162816.
Roskill, Mark W. “Early Impressionism and the Fashion Print.” The Burlington Magazine 112, no. 807 (June 1970): 390–95. http://www.jstor.org/stable/876343.
Schirrmeister, Anne. “La Dernière Mode: Berthe Morisot and Costume.” In Perspectives on Morisot, edited by T. J. Edelstein, 103–15. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1990. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/463695207.
Selle, William [from old catalog. A Treatise on the Measurement of the Human Body and the Art of Cutting Materials for Gentlemen’s Clothes. Chicago, Ill., C. F. Lichtner, book and job printer, 1873. http://archive.org/details/treatiseonmeasur00sell.
Selle, William [from old catalog. Die lehre der körpermessung und der kunst des zuschneidens von herrenkleidern. Chicago, Ill., Buch- und accidenz-druckerei von C. F. Lichtner, 1873. http://archive.org/details/dielehrederkrp00sell.
Severa, Joan L. Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/552147475.
Pinterest
“1800-1900 Patterns & Tutorials,” 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/patterns-tutorials-1800-1900/.
“Costume in Art - 19th Century,” 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/maellen/costume-in-art-19th-century/.
“Historic Costume - 19th Century,” 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/maellen/historic-costume-19th-century/.
“1800-1899 Jewelry.” Pinterest, 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1800-1899-jewelry/.
“1800-1899 Fabrics & Textiles.” Pinterest, 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1800-1899-fabrics-textiles/.
“1870-1889 (Bustle).” Fox Historic Costume Collection, 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/FoxHCC/1870-1889-bustle/.
“Fashion Art - 1870’s,” 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/tklein1014/fashion-art-1870-s/.
“Inspiration | The Victorians.” Salon of the Dames, 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/SalonofTheDames/inspiration-the-victorians/.
“1870s Fashion: Men.” Pocket Museum, 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-fashion-men/.
“1870s Accessories.” Pocket Museum, 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-accessories/.
“1870s Fashion.” Pocket Museum, 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870-s-fashion/.
“1870s Fashion in Photographs.” Pocket Museum, 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-fashion-in-photographs/.
“1870s Outerwear.” Pocket Museum, 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-outerwear/.
“1870s Portrait Paintings.” Pocket Museum, 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-portrait-paintings/.
“1870s Fashion Plates.” Pocket Museum, 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-fashion-plates/.
“1870s Wedding Fashions.” Pocket Museum, 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-wedding-fashions/.