The Victoria & Albert Museum writes of 1870s women’s dress:

“1870s women’s fashion placed an emphasis on the back of the skirt, with long trains and fabric draped up into bustles with an abundance of flounces and ruching. The waist was lower in the 1870s than the 1860s, with an elongated and tight bodice and a flat fronted skirt. Low, square necklines were fashionable. Hair was dressed high at the back with complicated twists and rolls, falling to the shoulders, adorned with ribbons, bands and decorative combs. Hats were very small and tilted forward to the forehead. Later in the decade wider brimmed ‘picture hats’ were also worn, though still tilted forwards.”

Wikipedia summarizes women’s fashion of the 1870s, writing:

“By 1870, fullness in the skirt had moved to the rear, where elaborately draped overskirts were held in place by tapes and supported by a bustle. This fashion required an underskirt, which was heavily trimmed with pleats, flounces, ruching, and frills. This fashion was short-lived (though the bustle would return again in the mid-1880s), and was succeeded by a tight-fitting silhouette with fullness as low as the knees: the cuirass bodice, a form-fitting, long-waisted, boned bodice that reached below the hips, and the princess sheath dress. Sleeves were very tight fitting. Square necklines were common.

Day dresses had high necklines that were either closed, squared, or V-shaped. Sleeves of morning dresses were narrow throughout the period, with a tendency to flare slightly at the wrist early on. Women often draped overskirts to produce an apron-like effect from the front.

Evening gowns had low necklines and very short, off-the-shoulder sleeves, and were worn with short (later mid-length) gloves. Other characteristic fashions included a velvet ribbon tied high around the neck and trailing behind for evening (the origin of the modern choker necklace).”

Men's Wear, Plate 013

Fig. 1 - Artist unknown. Men's Wear, Plate 013, 1860-1899. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Costume Institute

Mrs Bischoffsheim

Fig. 2 - Sir John Everett Millais (British, 1829–1896). Mrs Bischoffsheim, 1873. Oil on canvas; 136.4 x 91.8 cm (24 in). London: Tate, N05572. Source: Tate

Moniteur de la Mode

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown. Moniteur de la Mode, 1875. Source: Pinterest

Portrait de Mlle X, Marquise d'Anforti

Fig. 7 - Carolus-Duran (French, 1838-1917). Portrait de Mlle X, Marquise d'Anforti, 1873. 206 x 127.5 cm; oil on canvas cm. Cambrai: Musée des Beaux-arts de Cambrai, RF2753. Source: Musée des Beaux-Arts

Le Moniteur de la Mode

Fig. 4 - Artist unknown. Le Moniteur de la Mode, 1878. Source: Pinterest

Le Moniteur de la mode

Fig. 8 - Jules David (French, 1808–1892). Le Moniteur de la mode, 1875. Source: Pinterest

Walking dress

Fig. 5 - Designer unknown (possibly Italian). Walking dress, ca. 1878-80. Two pieces (jacket, skirt) of wool muslin and ecru silk. Florence: Costume Gallery of Palazzo Pitti. Source: Europeana collections

La Danse

Fig. 9 - Jean Béraud (French, 1849-1935). La Danse, 19th century. Oil on panel; 26.6 x 15.3 cm (10 1/2 x 6 in). Source: Sotheby's

Berthe Studying a Fan

Fig. 6 - Giovanni Boldini (Italian, 1842-1931). Berthe Studying a Fan, 1878. Oil on canvas; 61.6 x 40.6 cm. Private Collection. Source: Wikimedia

Ball gown

Fig. 10 - Designer unknown (French). Ball gown, 1876. Silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983.3.2a–c. Purchase, Irene Lewisohn Bequest, 1983.. Source: The Met


Of 1870s men, the Victoria & Albert Museum writes:

“Coats and jackets were semi-fitted and thigh-length. Generally, both jackets and waistcoats were buttoned high on the chest. Shirt collars were stiff and upstanding, with the tips turned down into wings. Hair was often worn parted in the centre, and most forms of facial hair were acceptable, though being clean shaven was rare.”

Of 1870s men, Wikipedia writes:

“Innovations in men’s fashion of the 1870s included the acceptance of patterned or figured fabrics for shirts and the general replacement of neckties tied in bow knots with the four-in-hand and later the Ascot tie.”
Gentleman's Magazine

Fig. 1 - Artist unknown. Gentleman's Magazine, January 1870. Source: Pinterest

Double-breasted morning coat

Fig. 2 - Designer unknown. Double-breasted morning coat, 1873-75. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, T.3-1982. Source: V&A

Napoleon Eugene Bonaparte

Fig. 3 - Photographer unknown. Napoleon Eugene Bonaparte, 1877. Photograph. Source: Pinterest

Portrait of Paul Hugot

Fig. 4 - Gustave Caillebotte (French, 1848-1894). Portrait of Paul Hugot, 1878. Oil on canvas. Private collection. Source: Wikimedia


Princess Irene of Hesse (Darmstadt) and By Rhine

Fig. 1 - Photographer unknown. Princess Irene of Hesse (Darmstadt) and By Rhine, 1873. Source: Pinterest

Le Moniteur de la mode

Fig. 2 - Jules David (French, 1808–1892). Le Moniteur de la mode, 1877. Source: Pinterest


Fig. 3 - Designer unknown (American). Dress, 1879. Silk, linen. New York: Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.3047. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009; Gift of Arthur Clement, 1945. Source: The Met

Mademoiselle Sabine

Fig. 4 - Carolus Duran (French, 1837-1917). Mademoiselle Sabine, 1875. Source: Pinterest


Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1870-1879

Europe, 1871. Source: Omniatlas

  • 1870 – Italy united
  • 1870-71 – Prussians besiege Paris
  • 1871 – Germany united under the Second Reich
  • 1872 – The marcel wave is first developed by hairdresser Francois Marcel, and remains popular for more than 50 years.
  • 1873 – First color photos appear
  • 1874 – Impressionists hold first group show
  • 1875 – Liberty Co department store opens in London.
  • 1876 – Bell patents telephone
  • 1879 – Edison invents the electric lightbulb
  • Primary/Period Sources

    Resources for Fashion History Research

    To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
    Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

    NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
    Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
    Arthur’s Illustrated Home Magazine. Vol. 39. T.S. Arthur and Son, 1872. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074636088.
    Arthur’s Illustrated Home Magazine. Vol. 39. T.S. Arthur and Son, 1872. http://books.google.com/books?id=v5bNAAAAMAAJ&.
    Arthur’s Illustrated Home Magazine. Vol. 43. T.S. Arthur and Son, 1875. http://books.google.com/books?id=GJfNAAAAMAAJ.
    Arthur’s Illustrated Home Magazine. Vol. 43. T.S. Arthur and Son, 1875. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015023133716.
    Arthur’s Illustrated Home Magazine. Vol. 47. T.S. Arthur and Son, 1879. http://books.google.com/books?id=9VTQAAAAMAAJ.
    Beeton’s Book of Needlework. London: Ward, Lock and Tyler, 1870. http://books.google.com/books?id=lxHdK1ds8twC\.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 18. London: John Dicks, 1873. https://books.google.com/books?id=mcwaAQAAMAAJ.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 10. London: John Dicks, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=k70aAQAAMAAJ.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 11. London: John Dicks, 1870. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.319510007314801.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 13. London: John Dicks, 1870. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951000731482x.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 13. London: John Dicks, 1871. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951000731482x.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 15. London: John Dicks, 1872. https://books.google.com/books?id=hD8lAQAAMAAJ.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 16. London: John Dicks, 1872. https://books.google.com/books?id=EMsaAQAAMAAJ.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 17. London: John Dicks, 1873. https://books.google.com/books?id=GcwaAQAAMAAJ.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 19. London: John Dicks, 1873. https://books.google.com/books?id=ncsaAQAAMAAJ.
    Demorest’s Family Magazine. Demorest Publishing Company, 1879. https://books.google.com/books?id=QGtNAQAAIAAJ.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1872. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2997548.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1874. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3019636.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1870. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2996927.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1871. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2976235.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1873. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3019376.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1875. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2912012.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1876. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2916191.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1877. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2979191.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1878. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3019205.
    Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 27. New York, 1870. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676334.
    Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 31. New York, 1872. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676359.
    Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 28. New York, 1871. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676342.
    Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 36. New York, 1875. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676383.
    Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 40. New York, 1877. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676391.
    Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 41. New York, 1877. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676409.
    Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 42. New York, 1878. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676417.
    Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 44. New York, 1879. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676433.
    Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 32. New York, 1873. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676367.
    Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 35. New York, 1874. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676375.
    Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 43. New York, 1878. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676425.
    Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 80–81. Philadelphia, 1870. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015027389348.
    Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 82–83. Philadelphia, 1871. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00322056l.
    Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 84–85. Philadelphia, 1872. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015010806621.
    Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 86–87. Philadelphia, 1873. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015030870227.
    Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 88. Philadelphia, 1874. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.30000108702816.
    Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 91. Philadelphia, 1875. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015004111087.
    Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 92. Philadelphia, 1876. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015014112935.
    Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 93. Philadelphia, 1876. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015034639941.
    Etiquette Books (Digitized)
    A member of the aristocracy. Manners and Tone of Good Society. Or, Solecisms to Be Avoided. London: F. Warne and co., 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007958573.
    Brinton, Daniel Garrison, and George H. Napheys. The Laws of Health in Relation to the Human Form. Personal Health. Springfield, Mass.: W.J. Holland, 1870. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011609586.
    Cheadle, Eliza. Manners of Modern Society: Being a Book of Etiquette. London ; New York: Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1892. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011159363.
    Duffey, Eliza Bisbee. The Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s Etiquette: A Complete Manual of the Manners and Dress of American Society. Philadelphia: Porter and Coates, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007126751.
    Fox, George Patrick. [from old catalog]. Fashion: The Power That Influences the World. New York: American news company; [etc., etc.], 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011204646.
    Gow, Alexander M. Good Morals and Gentle Manners. For Schools and Families. Cincinnati, New York: Van ANtwerp, Bragg & co., 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/002434282.
    Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness: A Complete Handbook for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society. Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008679158.
    Johnson, S. O., and Cairns Collection of American Women Writers. A Manual of Etiquette with Hints on Politeness and Good Breeding. Philadelphia: D. McKay, 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777095.
    Kernan, James. Perfect Etiquette, or, How to Behave in Society: A Complete Manual for Ladies and Gentlemen ... New York: A. Cogswell, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100485515.
    Moore, Bloomfield H. Sensible Etiquette of the Best Society, Customs, Manners, Morals, and Home Culture. Philadelphia: Porter and Coates, 1878. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007957836.
    Powers, S. D. Behaving: Or, Papers on Children’s Etiquette. Boston: D. Lothrop, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100557991.
    Ruth, John A., and C. S. Snyder. Decorum, a Practical Treatise on Etiquette and Dress of the BestAmerican Society. Chicago: J.A. Ruth, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007671336.
    Thornwell, Emily., and J.B. Lippincott & Co. The Lady’s Guide to Perfect Gentility: In Manners, Dress, and Conversation, in the Family, in Company, at the Piano-Forte, the Table, in the Street, and in Gentlemen’s Society ; Also a Useful Instructor in Letter Writing, Toilet Preparations, Fancy Needlework, Millinery, Dressmaking, Care of Wardrobe, the Hair, Teeth, Hands, Lips, Complexion, Etc. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1876. http://hdl.handle.net/10111/UIUCBB:thorem0001ladgui.
    Tomes, Robert. The Bazar Book of Decorum. The Care of the Person, Manners, Etiquette, and Ceremonials ... New York: Harper & Brothers, 1870. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/102133514.
    Wells, Samuel R. How to Behave; a Pocket Manual of Republican Etiquette, and Guide to Correct Personal Habits... Hand-Books for Home Improvement,No. III. New York: S. R. Wells, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921276.
    La Vraie Politesse et Le Bon Ton plus Particuliè Rement à l’usage Des Élèves Des Collèges, Pensionnats, Etc., Etc., et de Tous Ceux Qui Entrent Dans La Société. CIHM/ICMH Microfiche Series = CIHM/ICMH Collection de Microfiches ;No. 36736. Montréal? s.n.], 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100275186.
    High-Life: Usi e Costumi Della Vita Elegante, 1879. Milano: Direzione generale della Raccolta Daugnon, 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100223990.
    The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen: With Thougts, Hints and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances, Nice Points of Taste and Good Manners ... Hand-Books of Society ;2. New York: G.W. Carleton, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012454830.
    The Manners That Win. Minneapolis: Buckeye Pub. Co., 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012393095.
    Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)
    Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=FSgGAAAAQAAJ.
    Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=ziIGAAAAQAAJ.
    Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1871. http://dbooks.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/books/PDFs/555043828.pdf.
    Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1873. https://books.google.com/books?id=7SIGAAAAQAAJ.
    Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1873. http://dbooks.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/books/PDFs/555043829.pdf.
    Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1875. http://dbooks.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/books/PDFs/555043830.pdf.
    The Gentleman’s Magazine of Fashion. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Company, 1873. https://books.google.com/books?id=_xcGAAAAQAAJ.
    The Gentleman’s Magazine of Fashion. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Company, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=wRcGAAAAQAAJ.
    The Gentleman’s Magazine of Fashion. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Company, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=4BcGAAAAQAAJ.
    The Gentleman’s Magazine of Fashion. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Company, 1878. https://books.google.com/books?id=SBgGAAAAQAAJ.
    Hartley, Cecil B. The Gentlemen’s Book of Etiquette and Manual of Politeness: Being a Complete Guide for a Gentleman’s Conduct in All His Relations towards Society: Containing Rules for the Etiquette to Be Observed in the Street, at Table, in the Ball Room, Evening Party, and Morning Call: With Full Directions for Polite Correspndence, Dress, Conversation, Manly Exercises, and Accomplishments: From the Best French, English, and American Authorities. Boston: Locke, 1871. http://hdl.handle.net/10111/UIUCBB:hartce0001genboo.
    Hartley, Cecil B. The Gentlemen’s Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness: Being a Complete Guide for a Gentleman’s Conduct in All His Relations towards Society. Boston: Locke, 1871. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100605672.
    The West-End Gazette of Gentlemen’s Fashions. Vol. 11, 1873. https://books.google.com/books?id=3RUGAAAAQAAJ.
    The West-End Gazette of Gentlemen’s Fashions. Vol. 8, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=sxUGAAAAQAAJ.

    Secondary Sources

    Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

    Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
    “Chronology.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
    “Fashion Timeline: 1870 To 1880.” Vintage Fashion Guild, n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1870-to-1880/.
    “History of Fashion 1840 - 1900.” Victoria and Albert Museum, July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
    “Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion.” Victoria and Albert Museum, January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
    Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
    “Victorian Era: First Bustle and Natural Form (1870-1883).” History of Fashion and Dress, n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/firstbustle.html.
    Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
    Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
    Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
    Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
    Blanc, Charles. Art in Ornament and Dress. New York: Scribner Welford and Armstrong, 1877. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/903437797.
    Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
    Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
    Burnham, Helen. “Fashion and the Representation of Modernity: Studies in the Late Work of Édouard Manet (1832-1883).” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/226381287.
    Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
    Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
    Crawford, William T. [from old catalog. Crawford’s System on the Science and Art of Garment Cutting. [Providence?, 1874. http://archive.org/details/crawfordssystemo00craw.
    De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
    De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
    De Young, Justine. “Fashion and the Press.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 233–43. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
    Dombrowski, André. “The Emperor’s Last Clothes: Cézanne, Fashion and ‘l’année Terrible.’” Burlington Magazine 148, no. 1242 (September 2006): 586–94. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20074554.
    Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
    Flamant-Paparatti, Danielle. Bien Pensantes, Cocodettes et Bas Bleus : La Femme Bourgeoise à Travers La Presse Féminine et Familiale (1873-1887). Paris: Denoël, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/906468967.
    Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
    Furbank, Philip Nicholas, and Alex M. Cain. Mallarmé on Fashion: A Translation of the Fashion Magazine, Le Dernière Mode, with Commentary. New York: Berg, 2004. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/936905110.
    Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
    Glencross, William [from old catalog. A Scientific Guide to Practical Cutting. New York, W. Glencross, 1873. http://archive.org/details/scientificguidet00glen.
    Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
    Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
    Hambourg, Maria Morris. Nadar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851034965.
    Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
    Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
    Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
    Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
    Koch, Augustus [from old catalog. The Cutters’ Centennial Guide; Poughkeepsie, N.Y. [Printed at the office of the Poughkeepsie telegraph and daily press], 1876. http://archive.org/details/cutterscentennia00koch.
    Lambert, Miles. Fashion in Photographs 1860-1880. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300306371.
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