OVERVIEW

During the 1860s, the cage crinoline allowed women’s skirts to reach their apex in size, while menswear relaxed into wide, easy cuts. Advances in technology, such as the sewing machine and aniline dyes, and the rise of Parisian couture, beginning with the House of Worth, changed the fashion landscape.

Womenswear

The silhouette of the 1860s was defined by the cage crinoline or hoop skirt (Fig. 1), a device that emerged in the late 1850s, consisting of a series of concentric steel hoops attached with vertical bands of tape or braid (Cumming 37). Eliminating the need for multiple heavy petticoats to achieve the fashionable wide skirts, cage crinolines allowed skirts to reach their largest circumference around 1860 (Laver 188). Hoops were relatively affordable, creating a fashion that was worn throughout society and frequently the subject of withering ridicule as women’s skirts took up ever more space on sidewalks, benches, and halls (Shrimpton 13). Throughout the decade, the shape of the cage crinoline subtly changed, altering the entire silhouette with it. In 1860, it was huge, often measuring twelve to fifteen feet in circumference, and dome-shaped; that is almost equally circular all the way round, the shape that defined the 1850s (Fig. 2). By about 1862, the cage began to swing toward the back, becoming pyramid-shaped, the silhouette for the majority of the decade (Fig. 3). By 1868, it had flattened in the front and most of the volume was at the back (Fig. 4) (Laver 188). In fact, in 1868, the crinolette, a series of a half-hoops only supporting volume at the back, was beginning to be worn (Cunnington 230).
Cage Crinoline

Fig. 1 - Maker unknown. Cage Crinoline, ca. 1865. Steel-wire hoops, linen tapes. Kyoto: Kyoto Costume Institute, AC3863 81-19. Source: Kyoto Costume Institute

Day dress

Fig. 2 - Designer unknown (Probably American). Day dress, 1860-1862. Printed wool, silk braid. Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1978-110-25. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Stanley W. Root, Jr., 1978. Source: The Philadelphia Museum of Art

Afternoon dress

Fig. 3 - Designer unknown (American). Afternoon dress, ca. 1865. Silk, metal. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.1000a, b. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Dress

Fig. 4 - Designer unknown (British). Dress, 1868-1869. Silk, wool, glazed cotton, whalebone. London: The Victoria & Albert Museum, T.6 to C-1937. Given by Miss E. Beard. Source: The Victoria & Albert Museum

The Crown Princess of Prussia (Princess Royal of England) and Prince Henry

Fig. 5 - George Washington Wilson (Scottish, 1823-1893). The Crown Princess of Prussia (Princess Royal of England) and Prince Henry, October 1863. Albumen print; 10.6 x 7.7 cm. London: Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 2900819. Source: Royal Collection Trust

Womenswear consisted of a fitted bodice, a variety of sleeve styles, and a floor-skimming wide skirt. The cage crinoline was worn over a chemise, drawers, and a corset. Corsets shortened as there was no need to confine the hips (Tortora 361). In general, corsets were not tight-laced during this period; the sheer size of the skirts made waists appear small by comparison (Mitchell 94). The location of the waistline moved upwards during the 1860s, creating a short-waisted effect that would carry into the bustle silhouette of the 1870s. Around 1865, it also became common for the topmost skirt layer to be drawn upwards to reveal the underskirt or petticoat beneath, particularly in walking dresses or those worn for sporting (Fig. 5). Petticoats, now often exposed, could then be found trimmed with ruffles along the hem and made in bold colors and patterns (Thieme 51). This double-skirted appearance became more common late in the decade, as looped overskirts and long basques came into fashion (Cunnington 230-235).

 

Sarah Parker Remond

Fig. 6 - Photographer unknown. Sarah Parker Remond, ca. 1865. Albumen print. Salem, MA: Peabody Essex Museum, PH322. Gift of Miss Cecelia R. Babcock. Source: National Park Service

Throughout the decade, daytime bodices featured long sleeves and high necklines. Sleeves were dropped, set into an armscye below the natural shoulder. The wide, bell-shaped “pagoda” sleeves of the 1850s, always filled with large, ballooning undersleeves called engageantes, continued to be fashionable (Fig. 6). More frequently, sleeves of the 1860s began to close at the wrist and took on many varieties. The most common was a “jacket” or “coat” sleeve resembling a man’s coat sleeve, featuring a distinctive slight forward curve in the cut (Fig. 7) (Severa 194-197). Detachable collars and belts usually completed a day dress (Tortora 363). 

The Fashions Expressly Designed And Prepared For The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine.

Fig. 7 - Legastelois (French). The Fashions Expressly Designed And Prepared For The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine., January 1864. Print; (8 x 5 in). New York: The New York Public Library, PC COSTU-186-En. Source: The New York Public Library

In the 1860s, a trend for skirts paired with shirtwaists, or blouses, as opposed to a matching bodice became prevalent for casual daytime wear, especially among young women. The most important type of shirtwaist was the “garibaldi” inspired by the military uniforms of Italian freedom fighter Giuseppe Garibaldi (Severa 197). Traditionally made in a scarlet merino wool with black braid and buttons, it featured a high neckline and full sleeves gathered into a tight cuff (Fig. 8). The garibaldi shirt was also seen in black wool or white cotton (Cumming 90). Another military-inspired women’s fashion was the “Zouave” jacket borrowed from the Algerian Zouave troops who fought in the Italian war of 1859. The short, collarless Zouave jacket featured rounded borders trimmed in soutache braid, and fastened at the neck (Fig. 9). It was frequently paired with a garibaldi (Cunnington 211; Tortora 366). 

Garibaldi Dresses

Fig. 8 - Artist unknown. Garibaldi Dresses, March 1862. Print; (5 1/2 x 8 1/2 in). New York: New York Public Library, PC COSTU-186-Am. Source: New York Public Library

A Love Letter

Fig. 9 - Auguste Toulmouche (French, 1829-1890). A Love Letter, 1863. Oil on canvas; (24 x 19.8 in). Private Collection. Source: Wikimedia

Evening dress

Fig. 10 - Designer unknown (French). Evening dress, 1860-1861. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.43.7.2a, b. Gift of Estate of Mrs. Robert B. Noyes, 1943. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Dress: Bodice, Skirt, and Belt

Fig. 11 - Designer unknown (Probably American). Dress: Bodice, Skirt, and Belt, 1866-1868. Silk satin, black cotton lace. Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1997-80-1a--c. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Keen Butcher, 1997. Source: The Philadelphia Museum of Art

James Pinson Labulo Davies and Sarah Forbes Bonetta

Fig. 12 - Camille Silvy (French, 1834-1910). James Pinson Labulo Davies and Sarah Forbes Bonetta, September 15, 1862. Albumen print; (4 1/4 x 5 1/8 in). London: National Portrait Gallery, NPG Ax61385. Purchased, 1904. Source: National Portrait Gallery

Modes de Paris

Fig. 13 - Artist unknown (French). Modes de Paris, 1868. Print engraving; 27.5 x 18 cm. Seattle: University of Washington, COS177. Source: University of Washington

In the evening, the neckline of dresses dropped off-the-shoulder and could be straight or en coeur (dipped in the center). The neckline was often trimmed with a bertha, a folded band of fabric, usually pleated silk or a fine lace (Fig. 10). Sleeves were very short, sometimes mere straps across the shoulders (Tortora 365). Regarding outerwear, shawls continued to be favored, especially as the wide skirts were a perfect surface upon which to display a large Paisley or “India” shawl. However, jackets were increasingly worn, particularly toward the end of the decade (Severa 203-204). The paletot (Fig. 5), a three-quarter length jacket, featured loose sleeves and draped gently from shoulder to hem (Cumming 146). Mantles were another option usually worn full and often trimmed with tassels and braid (Tortora 366).

Technology and invention was evident in the fashion of 1860s women. Firstly, the use of the sewing machine grew exponentially, especially after the Civil War broke out in the United States instantly causing an enormous demand for ready-to-wear military uniforms (Tortora 358). The Singer Company, founded by Issac Singer in the 1850s, was the largest manufacturer of sewing machines in the world by 1860 and specifically created and marketed versions for domestic use (Brittanica). Soon, many women were using the sewing machine in their homes, and the ready-to-wear industry was expanded thanks to the efficiency that the sewing machine could provide. Arguably, the popularity of ready-made cloaks and cage crinolines were in part due to the sewing machine as it allowed both to be made quickly and cheaply (Tortora 358). Secondly, synthetic dyes were becoming all the rage (Fig. 11). The first one, a vivid purple hue named “mauveine,” had been invented by William Henry Perkins in 1856, and more synthetic shades quickly followed (Tortora 361). By the mid-to-late 1860s, the trend for vivid, sometimes garish colors, often in contrasting combinations, was firmly established (Cunnington 206-207).

In the early 1860s, women wore their hair parted in the center and smoothly combed back into a chignon, sometimes featuring small curls or braids above the ears (Cunnington 244). The hair net, or snood, was an all-important accessory, usually made of chenille yarns or silk, worn looped around the chignon at the back (Fig. 12). Late in the decade, hairstyles became more complicated; curls were left loose in the back underneath ever larger arrangements of braids and chignons (Fig. 13). False hair became commonplace, sold in puffs, curls, and braids. As hairstyles grew in size and complexity, the snood fell out of fashion (Severa 205-206). Throughout the decade, both the bonnet, defined by its strings tied around the chin, and the hat, which lacked such strings, were worn. In previous years, a bonnet was considered the more formal, modest choice; there had been a certain propriety about whether one wore a bonnet or a hat. During the 1860s, these rules began to fade from relevancy, a trend that continued into the 1870s (Cunnington 238). Bonnets shrank to a small depth, and were worn tipped back on the head. Hats, meanwhile, were worn at the center of the head, and were generally low-crowned, round, and could feature a wide or narrow brim. Around 1868, as hairstyles became high and cascading down the back, the hat was pushed forward to lean over the forehead (Severa 206-207). For formal evening occasions, hair ornaments of jewel, flowers, or fruit were worn (Tortora 367).

The 1860s witnessed the rise of one of the most important characters in nineteenth-century fashion, Charles Frederick Worth, who is celebrated as “the father of haute couture” (Trubert-Tollu 10; Perrot 41). An Englishman who moved to Paris as a young man, Worth worked in the fabric houses and then the well-established Maison Gagelin. In 1858 he opened his own fashion house, alongside his partner Otto Gustave Bobergh, who handled the administration of the business. By 1860, through deliberate outreach and clever marketing, Worth had been introduced into the imperial court circles and began dressing the most elite of French society, including Empress Eugenie (Coleman 12-13). Throughout the 1860s, the House of Worth enjoyed a meteoric rise and was soon counting aristocratic women from across Europe and wealthy socialites in America as his clients (Tortora 354). Worth’s designs were known for their distinctive fabrics and luxurious trims, excellent fit, and historical inspiration, especially seventeenth- and eighteenth-century revivals (Fig. 14) (Coleman 47; Met). The House of Worth led fashion throughout the rest of the century and into the twentieth. The authors of The House of Worth: 1858-1954, The Birth of Haute Couture wrote that Worth was:

“a touchstone for the radical transformation of the world of ladies’ dressmaking that took place from the 1860s, pairing the traditional work of seamstresses with the practices of the ready-made garment industry and the marketing methods of Paris fashion houses…Applying his innate sense of aesthetics and love of art to his couture work, [Worth] was able to marry the exquisite taste of Paris fashions…with the sophisticated commercial and marketing methods developed by his British counterparts.” (10)

Evening dress

Fig. 14 - Charles Frederick Worth (British, 1825-1895). Evening dress, 1866-1868. Silk. Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1996-19-3a,b. 125th Anniversary Acquisition. Gift of the heirs of Charlotte Hope Binney Tyler Montgomery, 1996. Source: The Philadelphia Museum of Art

Fashion Icon: Princess Pauline von Metternich (1836-1921)

Princess de Metternich

Fig. 1 - André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri (French, 1819 - 1889). Princess de Metternich, 1864. Albumen print. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 84.XD.379.169. Source: The J. Paul Getty Museum

Princess Pauline von Metternich

Fig. 2 - Franz Xaver Winterhalter (German, 1805-1873). Princess Pauline von Metternich, 1860. Oil on canvas; 89.5×77.8 cm. Private Collection. Source: Wikipedia

Princess Pauline von Metternich was a glittering member of the French imperial court during the 1860s, and arguably precipitated Worth’s rise to fame, becoming one of his first clients and introducing him to Empress Eugenie. Born in Vienna in 1836, Pauline became the young wife of the Austrian ambassador to France, Prince Richard von Metternich in 1856. They arrived in Paris in 1859, where she quickly established herself as a fashionable lady, one who compensated for her supposedly plain appearance by cultivating a zest for art, music, and lavish parties (Trubert-Trollu 32). More importantly, Pauline was always seen in the latest mode (Figs. 1-2), often ahead of the winds of fashion; it is said that she began to loop up her skirts to reveal a petticoat as early as 1859, a practice that would not become widespread until the mid-1860s (Thieme 51). She was a close friend of Empress Eugenie, and the emperor considered her invaluable in demonstrating the luxury and fashionability of the French court, a sign that France was regaining its prestige.

In 1860, Worth’s wife, Marie, was on a mission to gain clients for her husband from the highest in French society (Coleman 13). Pauline described in her memoirs how her maid received a book of designs from Marie, who was boldly imploring Pauline to examine them and offered that her husband would make her a gown at any price. Impressed with the artistry of the designs, Pauline ordered two gowns for only 600 francs. When she wore her new evening gown, a white tulle confection laden with diamonds and pink daisies, Empress Eugenie immediately requested an introduction to the unknown Englishman who had made it. It was noted in The House of Worth: 1858-1954, that “Worth’s career was thus launched, and never again would the princess be able to have a Worth dress for a mere 300 francs” (34). Even after the fall of the Second Empire in 1871, Pauline’s fashionable influence remained. She continued her patronage of the House of Worth after she and her husband were ordered back to Vienna (Coleman 100). Pauline and Worth remained friends for the remainder of their lives; Worth never forgot that he owed his career to Pauline (Trubert-Tollu 34).

Menswear

For the majority of the 1860s, menswear was marked by an oversized appearance, with loosely-cut jackets and wide, tubular trousers (Fig. 1). Fashion historian Jayne Shrimpton wrote that menswear was:

“easy to wear but rather shapeless, and because of [its] untailored style, even the dapper mid-Victorian man of fashion known as a “swell” appeared to contemporaries somewhat languid or drooping.” (34)

Jackets, of all types, retained the dropped shoulder seam and generously cut sleeves of the 1850s, and extended to thigh-length (Figs. 2-3) (Severa 209). By the late 1860s, the overall silhouette began to slim down and jackets shortened, a trend that continued in the 1870s (Shrimpton 34-35). 

As in womenswear, technology had a marked effect on menswear. The sewing machine was quickly creating the ability for much of male clothing to be mass-produced. The Civil War greatly sped up the use of sewing machines; considering the Union army required 1.5 million uniforms a year, there was an overwhelming demand. The number of sewing machines in use doubled from 1860 to 1865 (Tortora 356, 358). Shirts, underwear, accessories, increasingly even trousers and overcoats were made by machine. Brooks Brothers noted in the 1860s, that the creation of an overcoat took six days by hand, but with the assistance of the machine could be completed in three (Severa 208). The Civil War bolstered the ready-to-wear industry in another way when the Union army collected measurements and statistics on adult men. These figures were very useful to manufacturers after the war (Tortora 358). 

The sack or lounge jacket, straight, loose and lacking a waist seam, was gaining in fashionability and acceptance as casual or even semi-formal daywear. When worn with a matching waistcoat, and contrasting trousers, the sack could be made in a dark wool, or it could be tailored in a three-piece matching light suit (Fig. 4) (Severa 209; Shrimpton 34-35). For more formal, business attire, a man would choose a morning coat, defined by its waistline seam and its cutaway front which became a gentler curve in the 1860s (Cumming 135; Tortora 370). The gentleman second from left in Figure 5 wears a morning coat. Paired with a waistcoat and trousers, the morning coat was often tailored in heavier, dark wools and tweeds. Finally, the black wool frock coat, with its defining waist seam and full skirt (Figs. 1, 6), was increasingly relegated to the more formal daywear occasions (Cumming 87; Severa 209). Trousers, wide and billowing, could be either light or dark, and stripes and checks were sometimes seen, as in Figure 5, though patterns were increasingly rare through the 1860s (Tortora 371; Severa 209). The tailcoat became completely reserved for formal evening occasions in the 1860s, worn with a matching waistcoat and trousers, and a starched ruffled or embroidered white shirt (Tortora 370-371). The gentleman third from right in Figure 5 wears an evening tailcoat suit. 

John Mulvaney

Fig. 1 - Mathew B. Brady (American, 1823-1896). John Mulvaney, ca. 1863. Albumen print; (3 9/16 x 2 3/16 in). Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institute, The National Portrait Gallery, S/NPG.2007.139. Gift of Larry J. West. Source: National Portrait Gallery

Three-quarter-length portrait of an unidentified African American man, wearing suit, seated

Fig. 2 - J. N. Ramsdill (American). Three-quarter-length portrait of an unidentified African American man, wearing suit, seated, 1860s. Carte-de-visite photographic print; 10 x 6 cm. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, LOT 14022, no. 88 [P&P]. Source: Library of Congress

The Circle of the Rue Royale

Fig. 3 - James Tissot (French, 1836-1902). The Circle of the Rue Royale, 1868. Oil on canvas; (68.8 x 110.6 in). Paris: Musée d'Orsay, RF 2011 53. Source: WIkimedia

Sack Suit

Fig. 4 - Designer unknown (British). Sack Suit, 1865-1870. Wool, silk, cotton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1986.114.4a–c. Purchase, Irene Lewisohn Trust Gift, 1986. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Le Progrès: Modes de Paris Pour L'Académie Universelle Des Modes

Fig. 5 - Artist unknown (French). Le Progrès: Modes de Paris Pour L'Académie Universelle Des Modes, 1863. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, b17509853. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Met Digital Collections

Full length portrait of John W. Smith

Fig. 6 - Photographer unknown (American). Full length portrait of John W. Smith, ca. 1865. Carte-de-visite photographic print; 10 x 7 cm. New Haven, CT: Yale University: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, 2003888. From the Randolph Linsly Simpson African-American Collection. Source: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library

Regarding outerwear, the chesterfield coat, edged with braid and silk velvet facings (Cumming 46), was a popular form of outerwear, alongside the short, double-breasted reefer (Tortora 371). The top frock and the Inverness, featuring an attached cape, were also fashionable (Laver 205). A cloak, similar to a woman’s mantle, was the appropriate evening outerwear (Tortora 371). Shirts, more often concealed underneath high-buttoned jackets, were now more plain than previous decades. Shirt collars were not particularly high, and often folded down, completed by a variety of ties and cravats. Waistcoats were usually single-breasted and often featured a shawl collar (Severa 209). Figure 3 depicts the various shirt, tie, and waistcoat fashions. Most men held their trousers in place with suspenders; a lovely embroidered pair was considered an appropriate gift to a man from a lady (Tortora 371).

Men wore their hair at ear level, neatly parted and combed to the side; a soft wave was considered attractive (Severa 210). A variety of whiskers were fashionable including trim beards, mustaches, and frequently, long side-whiskers sometimes referred to as “muttonchops” or “Dundreary whiskers” (Fig. 3) (Tortora 371; V&A). The silk top hat remained the predominant choice, reaching tall heights in the early 1860s. It was seen with frock coats, morning coats, and even sack jackets. However, as the decade wore on, the top hat became increasingly formal and began to be reserved for only the frock, morning and tailcoat (Shrimpton 35). The rounded bowler hat was more frequently seen with sack jackets and flat-crowned straws were worn in summer. By the late 1860s, the top hat and the bowler had diminished some in height, as the overall silhouette became more streamlined (Tortora 372).

CHILDREN’S WEAR

Infants wore long white cotton dresses, short or long-sleeved, until about nine months old when they graduated to shortened dresses. Toddler boys and girls were dressed nearly alike in short-waisted dresses with full skirts until about the age of five or six when boys were breeched (given their first pair of trousers). These dresses could range from strong tartans to delicate calico prints (Fig. 1), the former being slightly more associated with boys’ dresses. Both sexes could also wear plain-colored dresses edged in soutache braid, echoing an adult trend towards military-style trim (Fig. 2) (Severa 210).

After breeching, small boys wore long trousers and a variety of jackets. Knickerbockers, trousers that buckled below the knee, had been introduced for young boys in the early 1860s (Shrimpton 46), and they were soon a common option as well. With both long trousers and knickerbockers, a small boy could wear a sack jacket, sometimes belted (Severa 211).  Another option was a wide-cut Zouave jacket, much like their mother’s, short, buttoned at the neck, and featuring braided trim (Fig. 3) (Shrimpton 46). Underneath sack or Zouave jackets, the shirt sometimes buttoned onto the matching trousers (Fig. 4). The sailor suit, with its distinctive square collar and V-neck opening, was also a common choice for small boys (Tortora 374). Soft felt hats were worn, and there was a marked trend for the peaked “kepi” cap modeled after the military wear of soldiers in the Civil War, seen in the boy’s hand in Figure 4 (Shrimpton 46). After the age of ten, boys were usually dressed as miniature adults, in suits cut much like their father’s (Fig. 5), and by sixteen, were considered full grown men.

Boy's dress

Fig. 1 - Designer unknown (English). Boy's dress, 1865. Wool, cotton, mother-of-pearl buttons. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, AC1997.191.16. Gift of Helen Larson. Source: Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Portrait of the Marquis and Marchioness of Miramon and their Children

Fig. 2 - James Tissot (French, 1836-1902). Portrait of the Marquis and Marchioness of Miramon and their Children, 1865. Oil on canvas; (69.68 x 85.43 in). Paris: Musée d'Orsay, 144940. Source: Wikimedia

Children's Fashions for February

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown. Children's Fashions for February, February 1862. Print; (6 1/2 x 5 in). New York: New York Public Library, PC COSTU-186-Am. Source: New York Public Library

Young boy in uniform costume holding kepi

Fig. 4 - Photographer unknown (American). Young boy in uniform costume holding kepi, ca. 1862. Ambrotype photograph. Washington D.C.: Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-41116. Source: Library of Congress

Princess Beatrice and Prince Leopold

Fig. 5 - Jabez Hughes (British, 1819-1884). Princess Beatrice and Prince Leopold, April 1865. Carbon print; 9.2 x 7.4 cm. London: Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 2901195. Source: Royal Collection Trust

Girl's dress: Bodice and Skirt

Fig. 6 - Designer unknown (American). Girl's dress: Bodice and Skirt, ca. 1860. Silk taffeta, velvet ribbon, rhinestones. Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1950-60-8a,b. Gift of Bertha Lippincott Coles, 1950. Source: The Philadelphia Museum of Art

Young girls were dressed as miniature adults, and their dress reflected the silhouette worn by their mothers, simply shortened to reveal their pantalettes or drawers below (Figs. 3, 5). While children’s crinolines were rare, multiple stiffened petticoats were worn to give the same effect (Rose 83). Girls’ dresses could feature all the pleats and trims of adult fashions (Shrimpton 50), and young girls wore jewelry and styled their hair in curls as well (Olian iv). For small girls, under the age of ten, dresses often featured off-the-shoulder short sleeves (Fig. 6). Like their elders, the garibaldi and Zouave jacket was a popular choice (Fig. 7); La Mode Illustrée noted in December 1860 that the Zouave was “so widely adopted that there is no longer anything eccentric about it.” (Olian v). Paletots and capes were standard outerwear (Figs. 3, 5); frequently a dress and cape were made as a matching ensemble for young girls (Shrimpton 51). Dresses covered with a delicate pinafore became fashionable towards the end of the decade, echoing the layered skirts of adult fashions (Rose 82). By the age of sixteen, hemlines dropped to one or two inches above the floor. Young ladies drew their hair up into chignons, and full hoops were introduced (Tortora 372).

Little Girls

Fig. 7 - Photographer unknown. Little Girls, ca. 1863. Source: Pinterest

References:

Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1860-1869
Rulers:

United States, 1860. Source: Wikimedia

Europe 1867. Source: Omniatlas

Events:
  • 1860 – Snapshot photography steel developed
  • 1861 – Italy unifies
  • 1861-1865 – American Civil War
  • 1863 – The Salon des refusés is held in Paris
  • 1867 – Harper’s Bazar first published
  • 1867 – Dominion of Canada created by the British North America Act
  • 1869 – Suez Canal built

Timeline Entries

1818-1907 – Elizabeth Keckley

1818-1907 – Elizabeth Keckley

1861 – Elizabeth Keckley, Purple velvet day and evening dress

1861 – Elizabeth Keckley, Purple velvet day and evening dress

1862 – Cream and mint silk day dress

1862 – Cream and mint silk day dress

1862 – Elizabeth Keckley, Green plaid day dress

1862 – Elizabeth Keckley, Green plaid day dress

1863

1863

1863 – Blue silk dress with black floral embroidery

1863 – Blue silk dress with black floral embroidery

1863 – Elizabeth Keckley, Striped evening dress for Mary Todd Lincoln

1863 – Elizabeth Keckley, Striped evening dress for Mary Todd Lincoln

1864

1864

1865

1865

1865 – Cream silk taffeta evening dress

1865 – Cream silk taffeta evening dress

1865 – Franz Xaver Winterhalter, The Empress Elisabeth of Austria

1865 – Franz Xaver Winterhalter, The Empress Elisabeth of Austria

1866

1866

1866 – Auguste Toulmouche, The Hesitant Fiancée

1866 – Auguste Toulmouche, The Hesitant Fiancée

1866 – Silk afternoon dress with a trompe l’oeil bolero jacket

1866 – Silk afternoon dress with a trompe l’oeil bolero jacket

1867

1867

1867 – White piqué afternoon dress with black cording

1867 – White piqué afternoon dress with black cording

1868

1868

1868 – Green silk day dress

1868 – Green silk day dress

1868-1869 – Edouard Manet, Le balcon (The Balcony)

1868-1869 – Edouard Manet, Le balcon (The Balcony)

1869

1869

1963 – Visconti, The Leopard

1963 – Visconti, The Leopard

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

Fashion Plate Collections (Digitized)
NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1861. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2076949.
Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1862. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2076949.
Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1863. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2085197.
Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1864. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2085198.
Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1865. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2164443.
Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1866. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2109872.
Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1867. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2091971.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 17–18. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1861. http://books.google.com/books?id=4C8ZAAAAYAAJ.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 21–22. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1863. http://books.google.com/books?id=sVLQAAAAMAAJ.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 23–24. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1864. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074624662.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 19. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1862. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074624654.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 27–28. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1866. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074624670.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 25–26. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1865. http://books.google.com/books?id=iUA9AQAAMAAJ.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 33–34. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1869. http://books.google.com/books?id=M0vQAAAAMAAJ.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 33–34. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1869. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074624688.
Bow Bells. Vol. 5. London: John Dicks, 1866. https://books.google.com/books?id=d80aAQAAMAAJ.
Bow Bells. Vol. 7. London: John Dicks, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=is4aAQAAMAAJ.
Bow Bells. Vol. 8. London: John Dicks, 1868. https://books.google.com/books?id=9s4aAQAAMAAJ.
Bow Bells. Vol. 6. London: John Dicks, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=5M0aAQAAMAAJ.
Bow Bells. Vol. 11. London: John Dicks, 1869. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.319510007314801.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1861. http://books.google.com/books?id=OJ1LAAAAcAAJ.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1860. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2969215.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1861. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2969446.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1862. http://books.google.com/books?id=sp1LAAAAcAAJ.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1864. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2982235.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1862. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2981717.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1863. http://books.google.com/books?id=NZ5LAAAAcAAJ.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1866. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2969337.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1867. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2971009.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1865. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2982539.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1868. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2911606.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1869. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2997017.
Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 1, 1860. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022690708.
Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 4, 1861. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/nyp.33433007728623.
Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 5, 1862. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022690567.
Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 1, 1866. http://books.google.com/books?id=sBwGAAAAQAAJ.
Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 5–6, 1863. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022690567.
Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 4, 1862. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/nyp.33433007728623.
Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 10, 1864. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.c0000044222.
Frank Leslie’s Monthly. Vol. 17. Frank Leslie, 1865. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433103958397.
Frank Leslie’s Monthly. Vol. 10. Frank Leslie, 1862. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433103958090.
Frank Leslie’s Monthly. Vol. 7. Frank Leslie, 1860. http://books.google.com/books?id=DXNHAAAAYAAJ.
Frank Leslie’s Ten Cent Monthly. Vol. 1–2. Frank Leslie, 1863. http://books.google.com/books?id=a6fPAAAAMAAJ.
Gazlay’s Pacific Monthly. Vol. 1. D. M. Gazlay, 1865. http://books.google.com/books?id=j_QRAAAAYAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 62–63. Philadelphia, 1861. http://books.google.com/books?id=iYBMAAAAMAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 62–63. Philadelphia, 1861. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015016441506.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 60. Philadelphia, 1860. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00322043u.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 64. Philadelphia, 1862. http://books.google.com/books?id=-YBMAAAAMAAJ.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Abell, L. G. Woman in Her Various Relations: Containing Practical Rules for American Females. New York: Hubbard & Burgess, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100192096.
Aster, Jane. The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances, Nice Points of Taste and Good Manners, and the Art of Making One’s-Self Agreeable. The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments, Remarks on the History and Changes of Fashion, and the Differences of English and Continental Etiquette. New York: Carleton, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676290.
Cox, Sydney. Friendly Counsel for Girls, or, Words in Season. Words in Season. New York: G. W. Carlton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011538429.
D., and D. [from old catalog] C. The Matter of Manner. Sudbury: H. S. Pratt, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100138761.
Fox, George Patrick. [from old catalog]. Fashion. New York, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009597581.
France. Cérémonial. Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008404138.
Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell. Manners: Or, Happy Homes and Good Society All the Year Round. Boston: J. E. Tilton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011563026.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette: And Manual of Politeness: A Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society: Containing Full Directions for Correct Manners, Dress, Deportment, and Conversation ... and Also Useful Receipts for the Complexion, Hair, and with Hints and Directions for the Care of the Wardrobe ... Boston: G. W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777142.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness ; a Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society. Boston: G.W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100685756.
Leslie, Eliza. The Ladies’ Guide to True Politeness and Perfect Manners: Or, Miss Leslie’s Behaviour Book, a Guide and Manual for Ladies ... Philadelphia: B. Peterson, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100165382.
Merten, Heinrich. Modernes Komplimentirbuch; Oder, Die Quintessenz Des Anstades Und Der Eleganz. Ein Unentbehrlicher Rathgeber Für Personen Beiderlei Geschlechts. Reutlingen: Fleischauer und Spohn, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008679336.
Routledge’s Manual of Etiquette. London ; New York: Routledge, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007672052.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances. New York: Rudd & Carleton, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011159230.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen...The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments. New York: Carleton, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676292.
Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1868. https://books.google.com/books?id=tCIGAAAAQAAJ.
Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1866. https://books.google.com/books?id=lSIGAAAAQAAJ.
Conkling, Margaret C., Henry. Lunettes, and Cairns Collection of American Women Writers. The American Gentleman’s Guide to Politeness and Fashion, or, Familiar Letters to His Nephews: Containing Rules of Etiquette, Directions for the Formation of Character, Etc., Etc., Illustrated by Sketches Drawn from Life, of the Men and Manners of Our Times. Familiar Letters to His Nephew. New York: Derby & Jackson, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777064.
Hartley, Cecil B. The Gentlemen’s Book of Etiquette and Manual of Politeness: Being a Complete Guide for a Gentleman’s Conduct in All His Relations towards Society: Containing Rules for the Etiquette to Be Observed in the Street, at Table, in the Ball Room, Evening Party, and Morning Call: With Full Directions for Polite Correspondence, Dress, Conversation, Manly Exercises, and Accomplishments: From the Best French, English, and American Authorities. Boston: G.W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006524937.
The Journal Des Tailleurs, or The Cutter’s Monthly Journal of London & Paris Fashions and Chronicle of Fashion. [Continued as] The Cutter’s Monthly Journal and Tailor’s Chronicle, 1869. https://books.google.com/books?id=ghQGAAAAQAAJ.
The Journal Des Tailleurs, or The Cutter’s Monthly Journal of London & Paris Fashions and Chronicle of Fashion. [Continued as] The Cutter’s Monthly Journal and Tailor’s Chronicle, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=Rx4GAAAAQAAJ.
The Perfect Gentleman ; or, Etiquette and Eloquence. A Book of Information and Instruction for Those Who Desire to Become Brilliant or Conspicuous in General Society, or at Parties, Dinners, or Popular Gatherings. Containing Model Speeches for All Occasions, with Directions How to Deliver Them. 500 Toasts and Sentiments for Everybody, and Their Proper Mode of Introduction. How to Use Wine at Table, with Rules for Judging the Quality of Wine, and Rules for Carving. Etiquette ; or, Proper Behavior in Company, with an American Code of Politeness for Every Occasion ; and Etiquette at Washington. Remarkable Wit and Conversation at Table, Etc., Etc. To Which Are Added, the Duties of Chairmen of Public Meetings, and Rules for the Orderly Conduct Thereof, Together with Valuable Hints and Examples for Drawing up Preambles and Resolutions. Perfect Gentleman. New York: Dick & Fitzgerald, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001438596.
The West-End Gazette of Gentlemen’s Fashion, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=iRUGAAAAQAAJ.

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

Online
“Bloomsbury Fashion Central - Berg Fashion Library,” n.d. https://www.bloomsburyfashioncentral.com/products/berg-fashion-library.
Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. “Chronology,” n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
“Costume Institute Fashion Plates.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/p15324coll12.
“Der Bazar - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2083461.
Vintage Fashion Guild. “Fashion Timeline: 1860 To 1870,” n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1860-to-1870/.
“Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion.” Accessed May 7, 2018. https://books.google.com/books?id=tCIGAAAAQAAJ&source=gbs_similarbooks.
“Hemeroteca Digital. Biblioteca Nacional de España.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://hemerotecadigital.bne.es/results.vm?a=4782809&t=%2Bcreation&l=600&l=700&s=0&y=1868&lang=en.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “History of Fashion 1840 - 1900,” July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
Cook, Michael. “Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition and History,” January 1, 2003. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1868.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion,” January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
“Victoria - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
History of Fashion and Dress. “Victorian Era: The Crinoline Period (1850-1869),” n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/belleepoque.html.
Books/Articles
Acton, William R. Acton’s Improved System of Actual Measurement. [New York, De Vries & Wood, printers], 1867. http://archive.org/details/actonsimprovedsy00acto.
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, ed. A Visual History of Costume. London : Batsford ; New York: Drama Book Publishers, 1983.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Boucher, François. Paris, Miroir de La Mode: Crinolines et Calèches, 1855-1867. Paris: Éditions Rombaldi, 1959. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/438804700.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brockaway, W. [from old catalog. The Great Balance-Measure System, for Cutting Coats, Vests, Pants, Cloaks, and Shirts. New York, Baker & Godwin, printers, 1864. http://archive.org/details/greatbalancemeas01broc.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Brundage, William W. [from old catalog. A Complete System of Cutting. [New York, Printed by A. Marrer], 1867. http://archive.org/details/completesystemof00brun.
Cole, Luman E. [from old catalog. The Tailors’ Guide: Containing Systems of Draughting Frock and Sack Coats, Pants, Vests and Shirts, with Valuable Improvements, Warranted Superior to Anything Ever Offered to the Trade. Milwaukee, Stan & son, book and job printers, 1868. http://archive.org/details/tailorsguidecont00cole.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
De Young, Justine. “‘Housewife or Harlot’: Art, Fashion & Morality in the Paris Salon of 1868.” In Cultures of Femininity in Modern Fashion, edited by Ilya Parkins and Elizabeth M. Sheehan, 124–47. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire Press, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/823388661.
De Young, Justine. “Fashion and the Press.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 233–43. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Dolan, Therese. “The Empress’s New Clothes: Fashion and Politics in Second Empire France.” Woman’s Art Journal, Spring 1994, 22–28. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1358491.
Dolan, Therese. “Skirting the Issue: Manet’s Portrait of Baudelaire’s Mistress, Reclining.” The Art Bulletin 79, no. 4 (December 1997). http://www.jstor.org/stable/3046278.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Glencross, William [from old catalog. Manual; New York, W. Glencross, 1866. http://archive.org/details/manual00glen.
Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hambourg, Maria Morris. Nadar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851034965.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
Lambert, Miles. Fashion in Photographs 1860-1880. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300306371.
Lansdell, Avril. Fashion à La Carte, 1860-1900: A Study of Fashion through Cartes-de-Visite. History in Camera. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/436041340.
Leisch, Juanita. Who Wore What?: Women’s Wear, 1861-1865. Gettysburg: Thomas Publications, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33070937.
MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Grace Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Samuel Sachs. Whistler, Women, & Fashion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/757386204.
Maeder, Edward, and Evelyn Ackerman, eds. Dressed for the Country, 1860-1900: Exhibition. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/562356615.
Matyjaszkiewicz, Krystyna. “Costume in Tissot’s Pictures.” In James Tissot, 64–77. Oxford: Phaidon, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630471252.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “Photography, Fashion, and the Cult of Appearances.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 197–207. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “The Carte de Visite and Portrait Painting during the Second Empire.” In A.A.E. Disdéri and the Carte de Visite Portrait Photograph, 137–203. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/755288192.
Nead, Lynda. “The Layering of Pleasure: Women, Fashionable Dress and Visual Culture in the Mid-Nineteenth Century.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 35, no. 5 (2013): 489–509.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. 80 Godey’s Full-Color Fashion Plates, 1838-1880. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/868271404.
Phyliky, Leonard. The Tailor; New System of Drafting Direct from the Measurement Taken with a Tape Measure, without Any Instrument, for All the Various Forms of the Human Body. New York: T. Holman, 1867. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011213188.
Piazza, Arianna, ed. Fashion 150: 150 Years, 150 Designers. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/961459695.
Ribeiro, Aileen. “The Art of Dress: Fashion in Renoir’s La Loge.” In Renoir at the Theatre: Looking at La Loge, edited by Ernst Vegelin van Claerbergen and Barnaby Wright, 45–63. London: The Courtauld Gallery, 2008. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/938162816.
Roskill, Mark W. “Early Impressionism and the Fashion Print.” The Burlington Magazine 112, no. 807 (June 1970): 390–95. http://www.jstor.org/stable/876343.
Schirrmeister, Anne. “La Dernière Mode: Berthe Morisot and Costume.” In Perspectives on Morisot, edited by T. J. Edelstein, 103–15. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1990. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/463695207.
Severa, Joan L. Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/552147475.
Shep, R. L., and Mark Campbell, eds. Civil War Ladies: Fashions and Needle-Arts of the Early 1860s. Mendocino: R.L. Shep, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794531398.
Simon, Marie. Fashion in Art: The Second Empire and Impressionism. London: Zwemmer, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33973359.
Simon, Marie, and Vivienne Westwood. Fashion in Art: The Second Empire and Impressionism. London : New York: Zwemmer ; distributed in the USA and Canada by Antique Collector’s Club, 1995.
Pinterest
Pinterest. “1800-1899 Fabrics & Textiles,” 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1800-1899-fabrics-textiles/.
Pinterest. “1800-1899 Jewelry,” 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1800-1899-jewelry/.
“1800-1900 Patterns & Tutorials,” 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/patterns-tutorials-1800-1900/.
Pocket Museum. “1860s Accessories,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-accessories/.
Pocket Museum. “1860s Bodices,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-bodices/.
Pocket Museum. “1860s Fashion,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860-s-fashion/.
Pocket Museum. “1860s Fashion in Photographs,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-fashion-in-photographs/.
Pocket Museum. “1860s Fashion Plates,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-fashion-plates/.
Pocket Museum. “1860s Fashion: Men,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-fashion-men/.
Pocket Museum. “1860s Footwear,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-footwear/.
Pocket Museum. “1860s Outerwear,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-outerwear/.
Pocket Museum. “1860s Portrait Paintings,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-portrait-paintings/.
Pocket Museum. “1860s Sportswear,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-sportswear/.
Pocket Museum. “1860s Underwear,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-underwear/.
Pocket Museum. “1860s Wedding Fashions,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-wedding-fashions/.
“Historic Costume - 19th Century,” 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/maellen/historic-costume-19th-century/.