The Victoria & Albert Museum writes of 1860s women’s dress:

“1860s women’s dress featured tight bodices with high necks and buttoned fronts. White lace was popular for collars and cuffs, as were low sloping shoulders that flared out into wide sleeves. The skirt continued to be full and bell-shaped until around 1865 when it began to lose its volume at the front and move its emphasis towards the back. Hair was worn with a centre parting tied into low chignons at the nape of the neck, with loops or ringlets covering the ears. Ornaments for evening wear included floral wreaths, ostrich feathers, pomegranate flowers, wheatears and butterflies.”

Couple d'amoureux

Fig. 1 - Auguste Renoir (French, 1841-1919). Couple d'amoureux, 1868. Cologne: Köln Wallraf-Richartz Museum. Source: Flickr

Young Lady in 1866

Fig. 2 - Édouard Manet (French, 1832-1883). Young Lady in 1866, 1866. Oil on canvas; 185.1 x 128.6 cm (72 7/8 x 50 5/8 in). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 89.21.3. Gift of Erwin Davis, 1889. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art


Of 1860s men, the V&A writes:
“In the 1860s it was fashionable for men’s coats and jackets to be single-breasted and semi-fitted, extending to the mid thigh. Waistcoats were often collarless and single-breasted, and trousers were occasionally cut from a narrow check cloth. High, starched collars were worn with cravats and neck-ties. Hair was parted from the centre and moderately waved. A particular hairstyle, known as ‘Dundreary whiskers’ or ‘Piccadilly weepers’, were long pendant side-whiskers worn with a full beard and drooping moustache.”
Franz Liszt

Fig. 1 - Franz Hanfstaengl (German, 1804-1877). Franz Liszt, ca. 1860. Photograph. Source: Wikimedia



Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1860-1869

Europe 1867. Source: Omniatlas

  • 1860 – Snapshot photography steel developed
  • 1860 – Garibaldi shirt or “Garibaldi jacket” popularized by Empress Eugénie of France
  • 1861 – Italy unifies; US Civil War begins
  • 1861-1865 – U.S. Civil War
  • 1863 – Salon des refusés in Paris
  • 1867 – Harper’s Bazar first published
  • 1867 – Dominion of Canada created by the British North America Act
  • 1869 – Suez Canal built
  • 1869 – Dolly Varden costume, named after a character in Charles Dicken’s Barnaby Rudge, becomes a fashionable look.
  • Primary/Period Sources

    Resources for Fashion History Research

    To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
    Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

    Fashion Plate Collections (Digitized)
    NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
    Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
    Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1861. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2076949.
    Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1862. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2076949.
    Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1863. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2085197.
    Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1864. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2085198.
    Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1865. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2164443.
    Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1866. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2109872.
    Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1867. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2091971.
    Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 17–18. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1861. http://books.google.com/books?id=4C8ZAAAAYAAJ.
    Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 21–22. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1863. http://books.google.com/books?id=sVLQAAAAMAAJ.
    Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 23–24. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1864. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074624662.
    Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 19. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1862. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074624654.
    Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 27–28. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1866. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074624670.
    Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 25–26. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1865. http://books.google.com/books?id=iUA9AQAAMAAJ.
    Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 33–34. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1869. http://books.google.com/books?id=M0vQAAAAMAAJ.
    Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 33–34. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1869. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074624688.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 5. London: John Dicks, 1866. https://books.google.com/books?id=d80aAQAAMAAJ.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 7. London: John Dicks, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=is4aAQAAMAAJ.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 8. London: John Dicks, 1868. https://books.google.com/books?id=9s4aAQAAMAAJ.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 6. London: John Dicks, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=5M0aAQAAMAAJ.
    Bow Bells. Vol. 11. London: John Dicks, 1869. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.319510007314801.
    Bow Bells. J. Dicks, 1868.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1861. http://books.google.com/books?id=OJ1LAAAAcAAJ.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1860. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2969215.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1861. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2969446.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1862. http://books.google.com/books?id=sp1LAAAAcAAJ.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1864. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2982235.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1862. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2981717.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1863. http://books.google.com/books?id=NZ5LAAAAcAAJ.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1866. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2969337.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1867. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2971009.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1865. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2982539.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1868. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2911606.
    Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1869. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2997017.
    Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 1, 1860. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022690708.
    Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 4, 1861. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/nyp.33433007728623.
    Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 5, 1862. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022690567.
    Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 1, 1866. http://books.google.com/books?id=sBwGAAAAQAAJ.
    Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 5–6, 1863. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022690567.
    Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 4, 1862. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/nyp.33433007728623.
    Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 10, 1864. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.c0000044222.
    Frank Leslie’s Monthly. Vol. 17. Frank Leslie, 1865. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433103958397.
    Frank Leslie’s Monthly. Vol. 10. Frank Leslie, 1862. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433103958090.
    Frank Leslie’s Monthly. Vol. 7. Frank Leslie, 1860. http://books.google.com/books?id=DXNHAAAAYAAJ.
    Frank Leslie’s Ten Cent Monthly. Vol. 1–2. Frank Leslie, 1863. http://books.google.com/books?id=a6fPAAAAMAAJ.
    Gazlay’s Pacific Monthly. Vol. 1. D. M. Gazlay, 1865. http://books.google.com/books?id=j_QRAAAAYAAJ.
    Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 62–63. Philadelphia, 1861. http://books.google.com/books?id=iYBMAAAAMAAJ.
    Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 62–63. Philadelphia, 1861. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015016441506.
    Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 60. Philadelphia, 1860. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00322043u.
    Etiquette Books (Digitized)
    Abell, L. G. Woman in Her Various Relations: Containing Practical Rules for American Females. New York: Hubbard & Burgess, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100192096.
    Aster, Jane. The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances, Nice Points of Taste and Good Manners, and the Art of Making One’s-Self Agreeable. The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments, Remarks on the History and Changes of Fashion, and the Differences of English and Continental Etiquette. New York: Carleton, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676290.
    Cox, Sydney. Friendly Counsel for Girls, or, Words in Season. Words in Season. New York: G. W. Carlton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011538429.
    D., and D. [from old catalog] C. The Matter of Manner. Sudbury: H. S. Pratt, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100138761.
    Fox, George Patrick. [from old catalog]. Fashion. New York, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009597581.
    France. Cérémonial. Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008404138.
    Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell. Manners: Or, Happy Homes and Good Society All the Year Round. Boston: J. E. Tilton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011563026.
    Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette: And Manual of Politeness: A Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society: Containing Full Directions for Correct Manners, Dress, Deportment, and Conversation ... and Also Useful Receipts for the Complexion, Hair, and with Hints and Directions for the Care of the Wardrobe ... Boston: G. W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777142.
    Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness ; a Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society. Boston: G.W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100685756.
    Leslie, Eliza. The Ladies’ Guide to True Politeness and Perfect Manners: Or, Miss Leslie’s Behaviour Book, a Guide and Manual for Ladies ... Philadelphia: B. Peterson, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100165382.
    Merten, Heinrich. Modernes Komplimentirbuch; Oder, Die Quintessenz Des Anstades Und Der Eleganz. Ein Unentbehrlicher Rathgeber Für Personen Beiderlei Geschlechts. Reutlingen: Fleischauer und Spohn, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008679336.
    Routledge’s Manual of Etiquette. London ; New York: Routledge, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007672052.
    The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances. New York: Rudd & Carleton, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011159230.
    The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen...The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments. New York: Carleton, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676292.
    Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)
    Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1868. https://books.google.com/books?id=tCIGAAAAQAAJ.
    Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1866. https://books.google.com/books?id=lSIGAAAAQAAJ.
    Conkling, Margaret C., Henry. Lunettes, and Cairns Collection of American Women Writers. The American Gentleman’s Guide to Politeness and Fashion, or, Familiar Letters to His Nephews: Containing Rules of Etiquette, Directions for the Formation of Character, Etc., Etc., Illustrated by Sketches Drawn from Life, of the Men and Manners of Our Times. Familiar Letters to His Nephew. New York: Derby & Jackson, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777064.
    Hartley, Cecil B. The Gentlemen’s Book of Etiquette and Manual of Politeness: Being a Complete Guide for a Gentleman’s Conduct in All His Relations towards Society: Containing Rules for the Etiquette to Be Observed in the Street, at Table, in the Ball Room, Evening Party, and Morning Call: With Full Directions for Polite Correspondence, Dress, Conversation, Manly Exercises, and Accomplishments: From the Best French, English, and American Authorities. Boston: G.W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006524937.
    The Journal Des Tailleurs, or The Cutter’s Monthly Journal of London & Paris Fashions and Chronicle of Fashion. [Continued as] The Cutter’s Monthly Journal and Tailor’s Chronicle, 1869. https://books.google.com/books?id=ghQGAAAAQAAJ.
    The Journal Des Tailleurs, or The Cutter’s Monthly Journal of London & Paris Fashions and Chronicle of Fashion. [Continued as] The Cutter’s Monthly Journal and Tailor’s Chronicle, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=Rx4GAAAAQAAJ.
    The Perfect Gentleman ; or, Etiquette and Eloquence. A Book of Information and Instruction for Those Who Desire to Become Brilliant or Conspicuous in General Society, or at Parties, Dinners, or Popular Gatherings. Containing Model Speeches for All Occasions, with Directions How to Deliver Them. 500 Toasts and Sentiments for Everybody, and Their Proper Mode of Introduction. How to Use Wine at Table, with Rules for Judging the Quality of Wine, and Rules for Carving. Etiquette ; or, Proper Behavior in Company, with an American Code of Politeness for Every Occasion ; and Etiquette at Washington. Remarkable Wit and Conversation at Table, Etc., Etc. To Which Are Added, the Duties of Chairmen of Public Meetings, and Rules for the Orderly Conduct Thereof, Together with Valuable Hints and Examples for Drawing up Preambles and Resolutions. Perfect Gentleman. New York: Dick & Fitzgerald, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001438596.
    The West-End Gazette of Gentlemen’s Fashion, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=iRUGAAAAQAAJ.

    Secondary Sources

    Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

    “Bloomsbury Fashion Central - Berg Fashion Library,” n.d. https://www.bloomsburyfashioncentral.com/products/berg-fashion-library.
    Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
    “Chronology.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
    “Costume Institute Fashion Plates.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/p15324coll12.
    “Der Bazar - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2083461.
    “Fashion Timeline: 1860 To 1870.” Vintage Fashion Guild, n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1860-to-1870/.
    “Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion.” Accessed May 7, 2018. https://books.google.com/books?id=tCIGAAAAQAAJ&source=gbs_similarbooks.
    “Hemeroteca Digital. Biblioteca Nacional de España.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://hemerotecadigital.bne.es/results.vm?a=4782809&t=%2Bcreation&l=600&l=700&s=0&y=1868&lang=en.
    “History of Fashion 1840 - 1900.” Victoria and Albert Museum, July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
    Cook, Michael. “Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition and History,” January 1, 2003. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1868.
    “Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion.” Victoria and Albert Museum, January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
    Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
    “Victoria - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
    “Victorian Era: The Crinoline Period (1850-1869).” History of Fashion and Dress, n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/belleepoque.html.
    Acton, William R. Acton’s Improved System of Actual Measurement. [New York, De Vries & Wood, printers], 1867. http://archive.org/details/actonsimprovedsy00acto.
    Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
    Ashelford, Jane, ed. A Visual History of Costume. London : Batsford ; New York: Drama Book Publishers, 1983.
    Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
    Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
    Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
    Boucher, François. Paris, Miroir de La Mode: Crinolines et Calèches, 1855-1867. Paris: Éditions Rombaldi, 1959. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/438804700.
    Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
    Brockaway, W. [from old catalog. The Great Balance-Measure System, for Cutting Coats, Vests, Pants, Cloaks, and Shirts. New York, Baker & Godwin, printers, 1864. http://archive.org/details/greatbalancemeas01broc.
    Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
    Brundage, William W. [from old catalog. A Complete System of Cutting. [New York, Printed by A. Marrer], 1867. http://archive.org/details/completesystemof00brun.
    Cole, Luman E. [from old catalog. The Tailors’ Guide: Containing Systems of Draughting Frock and Sack Coats, Pants, Vests and Shirts, with Valuable Improvements, Warranted Superior to Anything Ever Offered to the Trade. Milwaukee, Stan & son, book and job printers, 1868. http://archive.org/details/tailorsguidecont00cole.
    Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
    Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
    De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
    De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
    De Young, Justine. “‘Housewife or Harlot’: Art, Fashion & Morality in the Paris Salon of 1868.” In Cultures of Femininity in Modern Fashion, edited by Ilya Parkins and Elizabeth M. Sheehan, 124–47. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire Press, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/823388661.
    De Young, Justine. “Fashion and the Press.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 233–43. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
    Dolan, Therese. “The Empress’s New Clothes: Fashion and Politics in Second Empire France.” Woman’s Art Journal, Spring 1994, 22–28. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1358491.
    Dolan, Therese. “Skirting the Issue: Manet’s Portrait of Baudelaire’s Mistress, Reclining.” The Art Bulletin 79, no. 4 (December 1997). http://www.jstor.org/stable/3046278.
    Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
    Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
    Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
    Glencross, William [from old catalog. Manual; New York, W. Glencross, 1866. http://archive.org/details/manual00glen.
    Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
    Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
    Hambourg, Maria Morris. Nadar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851034965.
    Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
    Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
    Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
    Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
    Lambert, Miles. Fashion in Photographs 1860-1880. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300306371.
    Lansdell, Avril. Fashion à La Carte, 1860-1900: A Study of Fashion through Cartes-de-Visite. History in Camera. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/436041340.
    Leisch, Juanita. Who Wore What?: Women’s Wear, 1861-1865. Gettysburg: Thomas Publications, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33070937.
    MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Grace Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Samuel Sachs. Whistler, Women, & Fashion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/757386204.
    Maeder, Edward, and Evelyn Ackerman, eds. Dressed for the Country, 1860-1900: Exhibition. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/562356615.
    Matyjaszkiewicz, Krystyna. “Costume in Tissot’s Pictures.” In James Tissot, 64–77. Oxford: Phaidon, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630471252.
    McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “Photography, Fashion, and the Cult of Appearances.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 197–207. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
    McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “The Carte de Visite and Portrait Painting during the Second Empire.” In A.A.E. Disdéri and the Carte de Visite Portrait Photograph, 137–203. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/755288192.
    Nead, Lynda. “The Layering of Pleasure: Women, Fashionable Dress and Visual Culture in the Mid-Nineteenth Century.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 35, no. 5 (2013): 489–509.
    Olian, JoAnne, ed. 80 Godey’s Full-Color Fashion Plates, 1838-1880. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/868271404.
    Phyliky, Leonard. The Tailor; New System of Drafting Direct from the Measurement Taken with a Tape Measure, without Any Instrument, for All the Various Forms of the Human Body. New York: T. Holman, 1867. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011213188.
    Piazza, Arianna, ed. Fashion 150: 150 Years, 150 Designers. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/961459695.
    Ribeiro, Aileen. “The Art of Dress: Fashion in Renoir’s La Loge.” In Renoir at the Theatre: Looking at La Loge, edited by Ernst Vegelin van Claerbergen and Barnaby Wright, 45–63. London: The Courtauld Gallery, 2008. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/938162816.
    Roskill, Mark W. “Early Impressionism and the Fashion Print.” The Burlington Magazine 112, no. 807 (June 1970): 390–95. http://www.jstor.org/stable/876343.
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