OVERVIEW

Womenswear

Wikipedia summarizes women’s fashion of the 1690s, writing:

“The wide, high-waisted look of the previous period was gradually superseded by a long vertical line, with horizontal emphasis at the shoulder. Full, loose sleeves ended just below the elbow at mid century and became longer and tighter in keeping with the new trend. The body was tightly corseted, with a low, broad neckline and dropped shoulder. In later decades, the overskirt was drawn back and pinned up to display the petticoat, which was heavily decorated. Spanish court fashion remained out of step with the fashions that arose in France and England, and prosperous Holland also retained its own modest fashions, especially in headdress and hairstyles, as it had retained the ruff in the previous period.”

Anna Maria Luisa de’ Medici dancing with her husband Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine

Fig. 1 - Jan Frans van Douven (Southern Netherlandish, 1656-1727). Anna Maria Luisa de’ Medici dancing with her husband Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine, 1695. Oil on canvas. Private Collection. Source: Pinterest

Elisabeth Charlotte, Duchess d'Orléans

Fig. 2 - Jan Weenix (Dutch, 1640-1719). Elisabeth Charlotte, Duchess d'Orléans, 1697. Private Collection. Source: Pinterest

Reina Maria Luisa Gabriela de Saboya

Fig. 3 - Jacinto Melendez (Spanish). Reina Maria Luisa Gabriela de Saboya, 1690. Private Collection. Source: Pinterest

Marie-Louise Desmatins

Fig. 4 - Berey. Marie-Louise Desmatins, 1690s. French engraving. Source: Pinterest

Portrait of a Woman, Possibly Madame Claude Lambert de Thorigny (Marie Marguerite Bontemps, 1668–1701), and an Enslaved Servant

Fig. 5 - Nicolas de Largillierre (French, 1656–1746). Portrait of a Woman, Possibly Madame Claude Lambert de Thorigny (Marie Marguerite Bontemps, 1668–1701), and an Enslaved Servant, 1696. Oil on canvas; 139.7 x 106.7 cm (55 x 42 in). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 03.37.2. Rogers Fund, 1903. Source: The Met

Menswear

Wikipedia summarizes men’s fashion of the 1690s, writing:
“Fashion in the period 1660–1700 in Western European clothing is characterised by rapid change. Following the end of the Thirty Years’ War and the Restoration of England’s Charles II, military influences in men’s clothing were replaced by a brief period of decorative exuberance which then sobered into the coat, waistcoat and breeches costume that would reign for the next century and a half. In the normal cycle of fashion, the broad, high-waisted silhouette of the previous period was replaced by a long, lean line with a low waist for both men and women. This period also marked the rise of the periwig as an essential item of men’s fashion.”
Henry Davenport III as a Young Man

Fig. 1 - Jan van der Vaart (1647–1721/1727). Henry Davenport III as a Young Man, 1699. Chippenham: National Trust, Lacock Abbey, Fox Talbot Museum and Village. Source: Pinterest

Gentleman

Fig. 2 - Artist unknown (French). Gentleman, 1695. Private Collection. Source: Pinterest

Charles Beauclerk (1670–1726), Duke of St. Albans

Fig. 3 - Sir Godfrey Kneller (German, 1646–1723). Charles Beauclerk (1670–1726), Duke of St. Albans, ca. 1690–95. Oil on canvas; 126.7 x 102.9 cm (49 7/8 x 40 1/2 in). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 39.65.8. Bequest of Jacob Ruppert, 1939. Source: The Met

CHILDREN’S WEAR

Wikipedia summarizes children’s fashion of the 1690s, writing:

“Young boys wore skirts with doublets or back-fastening bodices until they were breeched at six to eight. They wore smaller versions of men’s hats over coifs or caps. Small children’s clothing featured leading strings at the shoulder.”

Prince James Francis Edward Stuart; Princess Louisa Maria Theresa Stuart

Fig. 1 - Nicolas de Largillière (French, 1656-1746). Prince James Francis Edward Stuart; Princess Louisa Maria Theresa Stuart, 1695. Oil on canvas; 192.8 x 145.7 cm (75 7/8 x 57 3/8 in). London: National Portrait Gallery, 976. Bequeathed by Horatio William Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, 1895. Source: National Portrait Gallery

References:

Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1690-1699
Rulers:

Map of Europe, 1690. Source: Kunst Museum

Events:
  • 1688-1697 – Nine Years’ War
  • 1691 – The textile factory Barnängens manufaktur is founded in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • 1692 – Following the Battle of Steenkerque between the French and the allied forces under William of Orange, a new, military-style cravat, the “Steinkirk,” becomes popular.
  • 1695 – English manufacturers call for an embargo on Indian cloth, and silk weavers picket the House of Commons of England.
  • Primary/Period Sources

    Resources for Fashion History Research

    To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
    Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

    Primary/Period Sources

    Castiglione, Baldassarre, and Thomas Hoby. The Courtier of Counte Baldessar Castilio: Diuided into Foure Bookes. Verie Necessarie and Profitable for Young Gentlemen and Gentlewomen, Abiding in Court, Palace, or Place. Translated into English by Tho. Hobby. London: Printed by Thomas Creede, 1603. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/606505970.
    Courtin, Antoine de. Nouveau traité de la civilité qui se pratique en France parmi les honnestes gens. Paris: H. Josset, 1681. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000179974.
    Peacham, Henry. Peacham’s Compleat Gentleman, 1634. CIHM/ICMH Microfiche Series = CIHM/ICMH Collection de Microfiches ;No. 98995. Oxford ; Toronto: Clarendon Press, 1906. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100309353.
    Pibrac, Guy du Faur. La civilité qui se pratique en France parmi les honnêtes gens, pour l’éducation de la jeunesse, avec une méthode facile pour apprendre à bien lire, prononcer les mots & les écrire. Tours: Billault jeune, [16-?]. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921297.

    Secondary Sources

    Also see the 17th-century overview page for more research sources… or browse our Zotero library.

    Online

    Watt, Melinda. “English Embroidery of the Late Tudor and Stuart Eras.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/broi/hd_broi.htm.
    Breiding, Dirk H. “Fashion in European Armor.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/afas/hd_afas.htm.
    Breiding, Dirk H. “Fashion in European Armor, 1600–1700.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/afas17/hd_afas17.htm.
    Victoria and Albert Museum. “Fashion up to the 17th Century Reading List,” January 13, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/f/reading-list-fashion-up-to-the-17th-century/.
    “Recreating 16th and 17th Century Clothing: The Renaissance Tailor,” n.d. http://www.renaissancetailor.com/research_vocabulary.htm.
    Watt, Melinda. “Textile Production in Europe: Silk, 1600–1800.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/txt_s/hd_txt_s.htm.
    Breiding, Dirk H. “The Decoration of European Armor.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/deca/hd_deca.htm.

    Books/Articles
    Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
    Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
    Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
    Cumming, Valerie. A Visual History of Costume: The Seventeenth Century. 3. London: Batsford, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/9761398.
    Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
    Griffey, Erin. On Display: Henrietta Maria and the Materials of Magnificence at the Stuart Court. London: Yale University Press, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/949809624.
    Hart, Avril, and Susan North. Historical Fashion in Detail: The 17th and 18th Centuries. London: V&A Publications, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/170891633.
    Hart, Avril, Susan North, Richard Davis, and Leonie Davis. Seventeenth and Eighteenth-Century Fashion in Detail. London: V&A Publications, 2009. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/846177973.
    Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
    Reynolds, Anna. In Fine Style: The Art of Tudor and Stuart Fashion. London: Royal Collection Trust, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/824726826.
    Ribeiro, Aileen. Clothing Art: The Visual Culture of Fashion, 1600-1914. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/150348469.
    Ribeiro, Aileen. Fashion and Fiction: Dress in Art and Literature in Stuart England. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630130965.
    Rodini, Elizabeth, Elissa Weaver, and Kristen Ina Grimes. A Well-Fashioned Image: Clothing and Costume in European Art, 1500-1850. Chicago: The David and Alfred Smart Museum of Art, The University of Chicago, 2002. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/694844989.
    Tortora, Phyllis G., and Sara B. Marcketti. Survey of Historic Costume. Sixth edition. New York: Fairchild Books, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/972500782.
    Vincent, Susan J., and Peter McNeil, eds. A Cultural History of Dress and Fashion: The Age of Enlightenment (1650-1800). London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/967107605.
    Waugh, Norah. The Cut of Men’s Clothes, 1600-1900. New York: Theatre Arts Books, 1964. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/927414537.
    Waugh, Norah, and Margaret Woodward. The Cut of Women’s Clothes, 1600-1930. New York: Theatre Arts Books, 1968. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/894728161.
    Welch, Evelyn S., ed. Fashioning the Early Modern: Dress, Textiles, and Innovation in Europe, 1500-1800. Pasold Studies in Textile History 18. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1004187054.
    Pinterest
    “1600-1699 Accessories.” Pinterest, 1600s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1600-1699-accessories/.
    “1600-1699 Children’s Clothing.” Pinterest, 1600s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1600-1699-childrens-clothing/.
    “1600-1699 Fabrics & Textiles.” Pinterest, 1600s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1600-1699-fabrics-textiles/.
    “1600-1699 Jewelry.” Pinterest, 1600s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1600-1699-jewelry/.
    “1600-1699 Men’s Extant Garments.” Pinterest, 1600s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1600-1699-mens-extant-garments/.
    “1600-1699 Undated Portraits of Men.” Pinterest, 1600s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1600-1699-undated-portraits-of-men/.
    “1600-1699 Undated Portraits of Women.” Pinterest, 1600s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1600-1699-undated-portraits-of-women/.
    “1600-1699 Women’s Extant Garments.” Pinterest, 1600s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1600-1699-womens-extant-garments/.
    “1600s Clothing.” Pinterest, 1600s. https://www.pinterest.com/brazen_irish_hu/1600s-clothing/.
    “1690-1699 Portraits of Men.” Pinterest, 1690s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1690-1699-portraits-of-men/.
    “1690-1699 Portraits of Women.” Pinterest, 1690s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1690-1699-portraits-of-women/.
    “History of Fashion: XVII C.” Pinterest, 1600s. https://www.pinterest.com/luthienef/history-of-fashion-xvii-c/.