OVERVIEW

1880s women’s fashion was defined by the rigidly structured bustle and an abundance of decoration. Dress reformers, influenced by artistic movements, protested these heavy, ultra restrictive trends.

Womenswear

Fashion in the 1880s was increasingly slender and angular, marked by heavy decoration. Throughout the decade, the focus of clothing design was concentrated at the back, a continuation of trends that began in the 1870s (Tortora 390). The extreme restriction placed on women’s bodies through the princess-line corsetry, large bustles, and profuse trim prompted criticism from both artistic and health reformers (Shrimpton 22).

The 1880s featured two distinct silhouettes in women’s fashions. The first was marked by the “princess line” and had begun earlier, around 1877. It was a dress without a horizontal waist seam, instead molded snuggly to the body by vertical seams and tucks, creating a body-hugging silhouette (Fukai 214) (Fig. 1). Similarly, this long, slim line could be created with a cuirass bodice, which emerged as early as 1875; it consisted of a long, tightly-fitted bodice that extended over the hips (Cumming 61). The princess line was marked by the continual diminishment of the soft sloping bustle of the early 1870s, until it nearly disappeared for a short time (Tortora 390). Instead, minimal fullness emerged from below the hips, with decoration concentrated low on the back (Fukai 214; Tortora 390).

The second silhouette of the 1880s began developing around 1883 (Tortora 386) and disappeared in the 1890s. By 1884, the bustle had returned, this time a hard, shelf-like protrusion that projected from the small of the back (Fig. 2). This bustle was rigidly structured, as opposed to the soft, draped bustle of the 1870s (Tortora 390). The undergarments contrived to support this look became increasingly complex. The “Lillie Langtry” bustle was a series of metal bands that could be folded up to allow the wearer to sit (Laver 198). Figure 3 depicts the common “lobster tail” bustle. The bustle reached its largest size by 1886, “whereon a good-sized tea tray might be carried,” as one writer commented at the time (Shrimpton 24-25). After about 1888, the bustle began to slowly shrink in size until 1891, when it gave way to the bell-shaped skirts of the 1890s (Fukai 239).

Throughout the 1880s, day bodices and dresses featured high, narrow shoulders descending into impossibly tight sleeves, a departure from the low, sloping shoulders of the past few decades. Collars were tall and fitted, sometimes boned for shaping (Fig. 4). During the day, hemlines were usually just above the floor (Tortora 391). Bodices could feature long basques or designs that appeared to be a jacket and vest, in imitation of menswear fashions. A significant trend was the polonaise style (Fig. 5), featuring a long bodice and an overskirt tucked up to reveal the underskirt, which was frequently ruffled or pleated (Tortora 391). This style was sometimes referred to as the “Dolly Varden” look, named after the character of the same name in Dickens’ popular novel Barnaby Rudge, set in the eighteenth century, underscoring the look’s revivalism influences (Fukai 218; Laver 193). Late afternoon and evening dresses (Fig. 6) featured shorter sleeves, ranging from elbow length to mere shoulder straps, lower necklines, and frequently long, sumptuous trains (Fukai 225-235).

Sad News

Fig. 1 - Edgard Farasyn (Belgian, 1858-1938). Sad News, ca. 1880-1883. Oil on canvas; (47.2 x 28.8 in). Newcastle Upon Tyne: Laing Art Gallery, TWCMS : G1749. Gift from Mr Jameson, 1948. Source: ArtUK

Day Dresses

Fig. 2 - Unknown Artist. Day Dresses, May 1886. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Special Collections, RS 21/07/009. Source: Iowa State University Special Collections

Bustle

Fig. 3 - Unknown Designer. Bustle, ca. 1885. Cotton twill, cotton braid-covered steel, cotton braid cord. Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, M.2007.211.399. Purchased with funds provided by Suzanne A. Saperstein and Michael and Ellen Michelson. Source: Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Four Young Women

Fig. 4 - Unknown Photographer. Four Young Women, ca. 1885. Source: Pinterest

Day dress

Fig. 5 - Unknown Designer. Day dress, 1886. Silk. Bath, U.K.: Fashion Museum Bath. Source: Fashion Museum Bath Twitter

Les Demoiselles de Province

Fig. 6 - James Tissot (French, 1836-1906). Les Demoiselles de Province, 1885. Oil on canvas; (57.9 x 40.2 in). London, U.K.: Christie's. Source: Christie's

Dolman

Fig. 7 - Unknown Designer. Dolman, 1885-1889. Silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.41.74.1. Gift of Mrs. Arthur Francis, 1941. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Day dress

Fig. 8 - Emile Pingat (French, 1820-1901). Day dress, 1883. Cut velvet silk and chenille fringe. Kyoto: Kyoto Costume Institute, AC10343 2000-26-2AC. Source: Kyoto Costume Institute

The types and extravagance of outerwear expanded in the 1880s, a development that began in the 1870s. The bustle silhouette was better accommodated by jackets and coat-like garments, as opposed to cloaks and capes that were dominant earlier in the century. Jackets were increasingly worn and cut to fit over the bustle style of any particular year (Tortora 392). Outerwear of the 1880s was particularly marked by the mantle or dolman, a garment featuring a wide sleeve cut with the body in one piece, and short basques in the back that exposed the bustle (Fig. 7). Often, a dolman had long mantlet ends hanging in the front (Cumming 67). Emilie Pingat, one of the most significant couturiers of the era, was known for his luxurious dolmans (Coleman 183).

Perhaps womenswear in the 1880s was most marked by the weightiness of decoration (Fig. 8). Womenswear featured an extensive use of trims, including ribbons, ruffles, flounces, shirring, bows, and lace; this over-decoration was not only seen in the evening, but throughout the day (Fukai 216). Dress historian Jayne Shrimpton wrote, “The resemblance between dress drapery and furnishing fabrics was often noted at around this time, particularly the vogue for rich, dark colors and sumptuous three-dimensional effects using velvet, plush (cotton velvet), satin brocade and embossed fabrics” (Shrimpton 25).

Women began to wear their hair more neatly in the 1880s. The long, cascading curls of the previous decade were now tucked up into tight chignons, particularly as the high collars of the mid-1880s came into vogue (Tortora 393). As the female form became angular and protruded from the back, hats rose in height to balance the silhouette. Tall, narrow hats were worn directly on top of the head; they rose to such heights they were mocked as “Four Stories and a Basement” (Ginsburg 92). This new millinery provided a great deal of space for decoration, and thus hats of the 1880s were elaborately trimmed with ribbons, flowers, lace, and most importantly a gruesome amount of feathers and entire stuffed birds (Fig. 9). It was during the 1880s that bird populations began to be slaughtered in such numbers, that many species became endangered (Shrimpton 26). It is not a coincidence that the American Audubon Society was founded in 1886, and the English Royal Society for the Preservation of Birds formed in 1889 (Ginsburg 92).

Evening hat

Fig. 9 - Unknown Designer. Evening hat, ca. 1880. Silk, whole birds, feathers, jet. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.2103. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

A Private View at the Royal Academy, 1881, detail

Fig. 10 - William Powell Frith (British, 1819-1909). A Private View at the Royal Academy, 1881, detail, 1883. Oil on canvas. Pope Family Trust Private Collection. Source: Wikipedia

No discussion of 1880s fashion is complete without mention of the Aesthetic Movement and the calls for dress reform. Throughout the second half of the nineteenth century, several artistic groups were reacting against the new, industrial era, and looking to the past for true beauty (Ellis 36). These movements, arguably, all coalesced in their influence on fashion in the 1880s. The Aesthetic Movement, with origins in the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood of artists which were inspired by medieval and Renaissance themes (Ellis 35-36), came into its own in the 1880s. Aesthetes argued for “art’s for art’s sake,” and adopted reform clothing based on the art of the Pre-Raphaelites (Lambourne 6). For women, Aesthetic dress consisted of a dress with a loosely-fit waist, puffed sleeves, and, most importantly, was often worn without a corset or heavy petticoats and bustles (Tortora 384). Aesthetic dress was also notable for its earth-toned colors, such as mossy green and ochre yellow (Shrimpton 22).  Figure 10 depicts Aesthetic women on either side of the painting, which contrasts with women wearing mainstream fashions in the center. The dress of Aesthetes influenced the Rational Dress Society, founded in 1881 (Laver 200), which argued against the constrictive and cumbersome mainstream fashion for women. However, the followers of the Rational Dress movement were more concerned with the unhealthiness of current fashions, than artistic pursuits. They protested corsetry in particular, and argued that women’s dress prevented them from being full, productive members of society (Mitchell 77-83).

Neither reform, Aesthetic dress nor Rational Dress, were accepted into the mainstream, and were both mercilessly mocked in the press (Laver 200). Nevertheless, some influence can be seen. For example, the famous London store, Liberty, opened its dress department in 1884 and carried looser styles inspired by the Aesthetes and dress reformers (V&A). The tea gown, show in Figure 11, shows influence from both reforms, especially in its “medieval” bands of embroidery. Tea gowns were soft dresses, often worn with a loosened corset or without a corset at all, meant to be worn at home, perhaps while visiting with female friends. First introduced in the 1870s, tea gowns became increasingly popular through the 1880s (Tortora 387). A more relaxed garment, the influence of Aesthetic and Rational Dress ideas on tea gowns is clear.

Tea Gown

Fig. 11 - Unknown Designer. Tea Gown, ca. 1882. Silk and wool. Kent, OH: Kent State University Museum, 1995.017.0017. Transferred from the Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. Source: Kent State University Museum

Fashion icon: oscar wilde

Oscar Wilde

Fig. 1 - Napoleon Sarony (American, 1821-1896). Oscar Wilde, 1882. Albumen print. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-69512. Source: Wikipedia

In 1885, the famous Irish poet and playwright Oscar Wilde wrote in his essay, “The Philosophy of Dress”:

“Fashion rests upon folly. Art rests upon law. Fashion is ephemeral. Art is eternal.” (Mitchell 87)

Perhaps, then, it would be more accurate to refer to Wilde as an anti-fashion icon. However, the significance of Oscar Wilde as a voice on 1880s fashion and dress cannot be overstated. As one of the leading adherents of the Aesthetic Movement, Wilde made its tenets famous across the Western world. In 1882, he embarked on a lecture tour of the United States, promoting Aestheticism and becoming a nationwide sensation (Lambourne 137). He was so inextricably tied to the movement, that when Gilbert and Sullivan sought to parody Aestheticism in their 1881 operetta, Patience, the leading character was based on Wilde (Tortora 384).

Wilde was keenly aware of the importance of dress in conveying an idea, and he developed his own version of Aesthetic dress (Fig. 1): a velvet suit of knee-breeches and soft jacket, flowing tie, and sometimes a Cavalier inspired cloak and hat (Tortora 384). The look was completed with his long, smoothly curled hairstyle (Lambourne 134-135). He advocated that artistic dress should be taken up by all, and was particularly distressed by the restrictive excesses of women’s fashions. In “Philosophy of Dress,” he argued against the very concept of fashion, writing:

“A fashion is merely a form of ugliness so absolutely unbearable that we have to alter it every six months!” (Mitchell 87)

As with the larger Aesthetic and Rational Dress movements, Wilde’s ideas were not widely accepted. In fact, he was a constant target of ridicule throughout the decade. His strange costumes were cartoonishly replicated across the press (Lambourne 141-142). Nonetheless, his ideas about fashion and dress had an outsized presence in any discussion of dress during the 1880s.

Menswear

Men’s clothing in the 1880s was marked by a long, slender frame. Suits were cut closer to the body, creating a tall, slim line (Shrimpton 38). The frock coat, featuring a waist seam with a full skirt (Cumming 87), remained the most formal daywear in town (Laver 202). The morning coat, a cutaway jacket with a waist seam, was a slightly less formal choice for daywear. A morning coat was more versatile than the frock coat; it could be quite formal in black and paired with striped trousers, or less formal in a tweed and cut shorter in length (Shrimpton 39). The sack or lounge suit, marked by its relaxed jacket, single or double-breasted, without a waist seam, remained the most informal choice for day (Tortora 401). Figure 1 depicts all three styles.

American Fashions: Day Menswear

Fig. 1 - Unknown Artist. American Fashions: Day Menswear, April 1882. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Source: Pinterest

Arrangement in Flesh Colour and Black: Portrait of Theodore Duret

Fig. 2 - James McNeill Whistler (American, 1834–1903). Arrangement in Flesh Colour and Black: Portrait of Theodore Duret, 1883. Oil on canvas; 193.4 x 90.8 cm (76 1/8 x 35 3/4 in). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 13.20. Catharine Lorillard Wolfe Collection, Wolfe Fund, 1913. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Evening Suit

Fig. 3 - Unknown Designer. Evening Suit, ca. 1888. Wool, silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.662a–d. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

For evening occasions, a formal tailcoat, with a matching double-breasted evening waistcoat and a white bow tie, was required (Fig. 2). In the 1880s, the notched collar of previous years’ tailcoats were often replaced with a continuous rolled collar faced in satin (Fig. 3). A new evening option was introduced in the 1880s; a dress version of the sack suit jacket became a less formal evening ensemble worn with black tie. This ensemble became known as a tuxedo in the United States and a dinner jacket in the United Kingdom (Tortora 401-402).

Tennis Players

Fig. 4 - Unknown Photographer. Tennis Players, ca. 1885. Hartford CT: Connecticut Historical Society. Source: Connecticut Historical Society Museum and Library

Sportswear played a special role in menswear during the 1880s. The blazer, in particular, became quite fashionable for wear at the seaside or for sports such as rowing, tennis, and cricket. The blazer, a single-breasted sack jacket, often made in brightly colored stripes (Fig. 4), was usually paired with light colored flannel trousers for such occasions (Shrimpton 40). Casual doubled-breasted jackets, known as reefers, were also a suitable choice for summer sports and picnics (Laver 202). For shooting and country activities, a Norfolk jacket, marked by its pleated back and belted waist, was the most common ensemble (Tortora 401). It was usually paired with loose knee-breeches and gaiters (Laver 204).

Most jackets buttoned quite high in the 1880s, and thus waistcoats took on less importance. They were frequently made in the same fabric as the jacket and trousers (Tortora 401). The tall silhouette of menswear was accentuated by high, stiffened collars that came into vogue (Shrimpton 38). These collars were often removable, along with the cuffs, and could be a stand or fold-over collar. Both bow ties and knotted neckties were fashionable; neckties were often accessorized with a tie pin or stick pin (Tortora 401; Shrimpton 37-38). The two dominant hats for men were the formal black silk top hat or the less formal bowler hat. Exaggeratedly tall bowler hats were particularly fashionable, further underscoring the tall, slim look of the decade (Fig. 5) (Shrimpton 38).

Arthur, Duke of Connaught

Fig. 5 - Numa & Fils Blanc. Arthur, Duke of Connaught, August 1887. Albumen print; 7.0 x 4.1 cm. London: Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 2904540. Source: Royal Collection Trust

CHILDREN’S WEAR

Group, Balmoral, Portraits of the Royal Children

Fig. 1 - Ballater W. Watson. Group, Balmoral, Portraits of the Royal Children, September 1885. Albumen print; 9.7 x 13.6 cm. London: Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 2904323. Source: Royal Collection Trust

Throughout the nineteenth century, babies and toddlers of both sexes wore long white dresses (Fig. 1), usually with long sleeves (Paoletti 85; Shrimpton 43). In toddlerhood, color could be introduced and dresses shortened to allow movement (Tortora 405). These dresses were loose and often featured rows of tucks or smocking (Shrimpton 45). Young boys were given their first pair of pants (known as breeching) around the age of five. After this, boys wore suits consisting of short trousers, often buckled at the knee, and a jacket (Fig. 2); blazers, reefers, and Norfolk jackets were all possibilities (Tortora 404).

Suits for Boys and Teenagers

Fig. 2 - Unknown Artist. Suits for Boys and Teenagers, 1889. Print; (5.75 x 8 in). New York: The New York Public Library, b17122166. Source: The New York Public Library

Like the general trend in menswear, boys clothing grew quite narrow in the 1880s (Shrimpton 47). The sailor suit, first introduced in the 1840s, became a favorite for boys from about the age of four through early adolescence (Olian vi; Shrimpton 49). The 1880s saw a fad for “Highland dress,” an imitation of the Scottish kilt, among the higher classes (Shrimpton 48). The Aesthetic Movement also exercised influence in boys fashions. The “Little Lord Fauntleroy” suit began to gain favor in 1886; it consisted of a velvet tunic and knickerbockers, flounced shirt, and a wide lace collar (Fig. 3). Named for the eponymous hero of a children’s book, the author claimed his character’s costume was influenced by the Aesthetic dress of Oscar Wilde (Tortora 405).

Ensemble

Fig. 3 - Unknown Designer. Ensemble, 1885. Silk, cotton, leather, metal, wood. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.3293a–f. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Princess Irene and Princess Alix of Hesse

Fig. 4 - Carl Backofen (German, 1853-1909). Princess Irene and Princess Alix of Hesse, March 1880. Albumen print; 14.1 x 9.8 cm. London: Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 2903497. Source: Royal Collection Trust

Young Girls

Fig. 5 - Kate Greenaway (British, 1846-1901). Young Girls, 1880s. Source: Bumble Button Blog

The introduction of the princess line narrowed girls’ dresses, as it did their mothers’. The 1880s saw girls’ dresses most frequently cut from the shoulder to hem, without a waistline seam, and featuring a wide sash worn low between the hips and the knee (Fig. 4). It was common for the skirt to be pleated (Tortora 404). The sash often tied in a pronounced bow in the back, echoing the bustles of adult fashions (Shrimpton 54). Indeed, girls were miniature versions of their mothers, and their dresses could be just as elaborate. While earlier in the decade, the princess line was often cut forgivingly for young girls and may have allowed a child to move, by the middle of the decade, all the restriction endured by adult women was forced onto young girls, as sleeves tightened and the rear projected evermore. The heavy trim seen on their mother’s dresses, frequently weighed down young girls as well. Young girls even wore the tall bonnets and hats then in vogue (Rose 85; Shrimpton 54).

However, some became concerned that these cumbersome fashions were not healthy for young girls. In November 1888, a writer at La Mode Illustreé wrote that a simple tunic-dress, gathered at the neck and tied loosely at the waist, was best for girls aged seven to twelve (Olian iv). The Aesthetic Movement underscored this concern, chiefly through the introduction of “Kate Greenaway” dresses. Greenaway was an Aesthetic Movement illustrator who created many children’s book illustrations featuring young girls in loose, Empire-waist dresses and protective straw bonnets (Fig. 5) (Tortora 404). These dresses, praised by many for their supposed health benefits, saw some favor in the 1880s, a trend that would continue into the 1890s (Mitchell 173).

References:

Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1880-1889
Rulers:

Europe 1884. Source: Omniatlas

Events:
  • 1881 – Population of Paris reaches 2,200,000
  • 1882 – Oscar Wilde embarks on a tour of America. His “too too and utterly utter” aesthetic fashion style is regularly remarked upon in the media.
  • 1883 – Brooklyn Bridge, the first wire suspension bridge, is built
  • 1885 – First motorcar built; first Chicago skyscraper; Thomas Edison invents the first movie in New Jersey
  • 1886 – Last Impressionist group exhibition
  • 1887- Fancy Dresses Described by Ardern Holt is published.
  • 1888 – George Eastman’s first amateur cameras
  • 1888 – Portable Kodak camera perfected
  • 1889 – Eiffel Tower built
  • 1889 – Safety bicycle introduced

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

Fashion Plate Collections (digitized)
NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Arthur’s Illustrated Home Magazine. Vol. 53. T. S. Arthur & Son, 1885. http://books.google.com/books?id=U8ckAQAAIAAJ.
Arthur’s Illustrated Home Magazine. Vol. 52. T. S. Arthur & Son, 1884. http://books.google.com/books?id=yUXQAAAAMAAJ.
Cottage Hearth: A Magazine of Home Arts and Home Culture, 1885. https://books.google.com/books?id=SWshAQAAMAAJ.
Demorest’s Family Magazine. Vol. 21. W.J. Demorest, 1885. https://books.google.com/books?id=ZpdPAQAAMAAJ.
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1883. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3069124.
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1881. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3041574.
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1882. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3041447.
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1884. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3079389.
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1886. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3071341.
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1889. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3019221.
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1885. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3019209.
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1887. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3051487.
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1888. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3051487.
Dorcas Magazine. Vol. 1. New York, 1884. http://books.google.com/books?id=6CEEAAAAYAAJ.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 51. New York, 1882. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676458.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 48. New York, 1881. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676441.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 50. New York, 1882. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676466.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 108–109. Philadelphia, 1884. https://books.google.com/books?id=fdE9AQAAMAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 101. Philadelphia, 1880. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.57766453.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 104. Philadelphia, 1882. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433104870054.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 104–105. Philadelphia, 1882. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00322066i.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 106–107. Philadelphia, 1883. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00322067g.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 108–109. Philadelphia, 1884. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00322068e.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 116. Philadelphia, 1888. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00319588v.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 117. Philadelphia, 1888. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015043516890.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 117. Philadelphia, 1888. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015043516890.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 118. Philadelphia, 1889. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015004176890.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 102–103. Philadelphia, 1881. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00322065k.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 105. Philadelphia, 1882. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433104870070.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 107. Philadelphia, 1883. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015043516411.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 117. Philadelphia, 1888. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433104870104.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 119. Philadelphia, 1889. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015004176882.
Good Housekeeping. C.W. Bryan, 1886. https://books.google.com/books?id=8Vs6AQAAMAAJ.
Good Housekeeping. C.W. Bryan, 1887. https://books.google.com/books?id=IFw6AQAAMAAJ.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 14. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1881. https://books.google.com/books?id=t6z7-QiPaRIC.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 20. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1887. https://books.google.com/books?id=ALc5llqiBIwC.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 13. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1880. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1880.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 16. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1883. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1883.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 17. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1884. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1884.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 18. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1885. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1885.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 19. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1886. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1886.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 20. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1887. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1887.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 14. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1881. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1881.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 15. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1882. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1882.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 21. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1888. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1888.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 22. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1889. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1889.
Illustrierte Frauenzeitung : Ausgabe Der Modenwelt Mit Unterhaltungsblatt. Berlin: Bruckmann, 1886. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3102088.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
[Young, John H]. Our Deportment; or, The Manners, Conduct, and Dress of the Most Refined Society, Including Forms of Letters, Invitations, Etc., Etc., Also, Valuable Suggestions on Home Culture and Training. Comp. from the Latest Reliable Authorities... Detroit, Mich.: F. B. Dickerson & co., 1882. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921277.
Alq, Louise Alquié de Rieusseyroux. [Le Nouveau Savoir-Vivre Universel]. Paris: Bureaux des causeries familières, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008681992.
Andrews, Wesley R. The American Code of Manners: A Study of the Usages, Laws and Observances Which Govern Intercourse in the Best Social Circles ... New York: Andrews, 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007696346.
Armstrong, Mary Frances Morgan. On Habits and Manners. Hampton, Va.: Normal School Press, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/102114189.
Aster, Jane. The Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s Etiquette Book of the Best Society. Information and Instruction for Those about Entering, and Those Who Desire to Become Educated and Polished in General Society ... New York: G. W. Carleton & co.; [etc., etc.], 1882. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007678006.
Aster, Jane., and Cairns Collection of American Women Writers. Sensible Etiquette and Good Manners of the Best Society ... to Which Is Added The Art of Writing. Carleton’s Household Library. New York: G.W. Carleton, 1882. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777127.
Carroll, George D., and Dempsey & Carroll. The Art of Dinner Giving and Usages of Polite Society. Art of Dinner Giving. New York: Dempsey & Carroll, 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100173294.
Cleveland, Rose Elizabeth. The Social Mirror: A Complete Treatise on the Laws, Rules and Usages That Govern Our Most Refined Homes and Social Circles. St. Louis, Mo.: L.W. Dickerson, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100557974.
Hall, Florence Howe. Social Customs. Boston: Estes and Lauriat, 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001397017.
Hall, Florence Howe. The Correct Thing in Good Society. Boston: Estes and Lauriat, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777094.
Hardy, E. J. "Manners Makyth Man. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100557966.
Harland, Marion. House and Home: A Complete Housewife’s Guide. Philadelphia, Pa.: J. H. Moore & co., 1889. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000653799.
Houghton, Walter R. Rules of Etiquette and Home Culture: Or What to Do and How to Do It. Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1886. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011595282.
Johnson, Sophia Orne. The New York Fashion Bazar Book of Etiquette. New York: G. Munro, 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011223773.
Keim, De B. Randolph. Hand-Book of Official and Social Etiquette and Public Ceremonials at Washington. A Manual of Rules, Precedents, and Forms in Vogue in Official and Social Life at the Seat of Government of the United States, for the Guidance and Information of Officials, Diplomats, Strangers, and Residents. Also a Guide for Diplomatic and Consular Representatives of the United States in Foreign Countries. Washington, 1889. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000195002.
Lavin, Eliza M., and Cairns Collection of American Women Writers. Good Manners. Metropolitan Series ;[v. 1]. New York: Butterick Publishing Company, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777096.
Lindau, Carl. Der Beste Ton. Regeln Des Anstandes, Und Anleitung, Durch Ein Anständiges Und Gesittetes Benehmen Sich Im Gesellschaftlichen Leben Angenehm Und Beliebt Zu Machen. Ein Sitten- Und Höflichkeitsspiegel Für Junge Leute. Erfurt: F. Bartholomäus, 1882. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921301.
Loewy, Benno. The Manners of the Aristocracy. Ward and Lock’s Useful Handbooks. London: Ward, Lock, Warwick House, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100770760.
Longstreet, Abby Buchanan. Social Etiquette of New York ... New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100330658.
Lounger in society. The Glass of Fashion: A Universal Handbook of Social Etiquette and Home Culture for Ladies and Gentlemen: With Copious and Practical Hints upon the Manners and Ceremonies of Every Relation in Life ... The Secret of Success Series ;6. London: J. Hogg, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/101852847.
Marbury, Elisabeth. Manners; a Handbook of Social Customs ... Chicago: Westminster, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007957951.
McCabe, James D. The National Encyclopaedia of Business and Social Forms, Embracing the Laws of Etiquette and Good Society, and Containing Plain and Simple Instructions in the Art of Appearing to the Best Avantage on All Occasions: How to Dress Well and Tastefully: With Rules for Courtship, Marriage, Etc. ... Cincinnati, O.: Forshee & McMakin, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921269.
Peters, Charles. The Girl’s Own Indoor Book: Containing Practical Help to Girls on All Matters Relating to Their Material Comfort and Moral Well-Being. London: Religious Tract Society, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009357566.
Ransone, L J ]. “Good Form” in England. New York: D. Appleton and company, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011714429.
Rayne, M. L. Gems of Deportment and Hints of Etiquette: The Ceremonials of Good Society, Including Valuable Moral, Mental, and Physical Knowledge, Original and Compiled from the Best Authorities, with Suggestions on All Matters Pertaining to the Social Code. A Manual of Instruction for the Home. Detroit etc.: Tyler, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012294173.
Reed, Isaac N., E. H. Ruddock, and George P. Wood. The Ladies’ Manual: A Guide to Woman in Health and Sickness, from Youth to Advanced Age: Containing Also a Treatise on Marriage and Home Culture, How to Become Beautiful, Rules of Deportment, Dress, and Social Forms, Etc., Etc., Etc. Chicago: I. N. Reed, 1883. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008996237.
Ruth, John A. Decorum: A Practical Treatise on Etiquette and Dress of the Best American Society. New York ; and Cincinnati: Union Pub. House, 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100773571.
Saint-Mars, Gabrielle Anne Cisterne de Courtiras. Comment on Fait Son Chemin Dans Le Monde Code Du Savoir-Vivre. Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100454824.
Sherwood, M. E. W. Manners and Social Usages. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1884. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001390918.
Sherwood, M. E. W. Manners and Social Usages. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005824625.
Smiley, James B. Modern Manners and Social Forms ... Chicago, Ill.: James B. Smiley, 1889. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100837528.
Stevens, Frances. The Usages of the Best Society. A Complete Manual of Social Etiquette. New York: A.L. Burt, 1884. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/101852984.
Thornwell, Emily. The Lady’s Guide to Complete Etiquette in Manners, Dress, and Conversation, in the Family, in Company, at the Pianoforte, the Table, in the Street, and in Gentlemen’s Society: Also a Useful Instructor in Letter Writing, Toilet Preparations, Fancy Needlework, Millinery, Dressmaking, Care of Wardrobe, the Hair, Teeth, Hands, Lips, Complexion, Etc. Chicago: Belford, Clarke & Co., 1884. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100866716.
White, Lydia E. Success in Society: A Manual of Good Manners, Social Etiquette, Rules of Behavior at Home and Abroad, on the Street, at Public Gatherings, Calls, Conversation, Etc. Boston: James H. Earle, 1889. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777092.
Young, John H. Our Deportment, or, The Manners, Conduct and Dress of the Most Refined Society: Including Forms for Letters, Invitations, Etc., Etc.: Also Valuable Suggestions on Home Culture and Training. Manners, Conduct and Dress of the Most Refined Society. Detroit, Mich.: F.B. Dickerson, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006151580.
The Manners That Win. Compiled from the Latest Authorities. Minneapolis: Buckeye Pub. Co., 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921270.
Modern Etiquette in Public and Private; Including Society at Large, the Etiquette of Weddings, the Ball-Room, the Dinner-Table, the Toilet, &c, &c. London, New York: Frederick Warne and Co., 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007701537.
Good Behavior ... Brattleboro’, Vt., San Francisco, Calif.: Cheney & Clapp; I.N. Choynski, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006510995.
Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1881. http://books.google.com/books?id=tTMGAAAAQAAJ.
The Etiquette of Men’s Dress. New York: The Men’s outfitter, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009604220.
Ayres, Alfred. The Mentor: A Little Book for the Guidance of Such Men and Boys as Would Appear to Advantage in the Society of Persons of the Better Sort. New York etc.: Funk & Wagnalls, 1884. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007958648.
The Monthly Record of Fashion, 1882. https://books.google.com/books?id=0SMGAAAAQAAJ.
The Monthly Record of Fashion, 1883. https://books.google.com/books?id=rBsGAAAAQAAJ.
The Monthly Record of Fashion, 1884. https://books.google.com/books?id=3xsGAAAAQAAJ.
The Weekly Record of Fashion, and Tailor and Cutter’s Guide [Afterw.] The “London Tailor and Record of Fashion” [Afterw.] The London Tailor [Afterw.] The London Tailor and Gentleman’s Magazine of Fashion, 1882. https://books.google.com/books?id=3CEGAAAAQAAJ.

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

Online
Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
“Chronology.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
“Fashion Timeline: 1880 To 1890.” Vintage Fashion Guild, n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1880-to-1890/.
“History of Fashion 1840 - 1900.” Victoria and Albert Museum, July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
“Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion.” Victoria and Albert Museum, January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
“Victorian Era: First Bustle and Natural Form (1870-1883).” History of Fashion and Dress, n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/firstbustle.html.
“Victorian Era: Second Bustle Period and Aesthetic Dress (1883-1890).” History of Fashion and Dress, n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/secondbustle.html.
Books/Articles
Amnéus, Cynthia. A Separate Sphere: Dressmakers in Cincinnati’s Golden Age, 1877-1922. Costume Society of America Series. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/907017627.
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Burnham, Helen. “Fashion and the Representation of Modernity: Studies in the Late Work of Édouard Manet (1832-1883).” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/226381287.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Flamant-Paparatti, Danielle. Bien Pensantes, Cocodettes et Bas Bleus : La Femme Bourgeoise à Travers La Presse Féminine et Familiale (1873-1887). Paris: Denoël, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/906468967.
Font, Lourdes M. “International Couture: The Opportunities and Challenges of Expansion, 1880–1920.” Business History 54, no. 1 (February 1, 2012): 30–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2011.626977.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Garb, Tamar. “Painting the ‘Parisienne’: James Tissot and the Making of the Modern Woman.” In Seductive Surfaces: The Art of Tissot, edited by Katharine Jordan Lochnan, 95–120. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/902215198.
Garvey, Ellen Gruber. The Adman in the Parlor : Magazines and the Gendering of Consumer Culture, 1880s to 1910s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300413491.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hecklinger, Charles [from old catalog. The Dress and Cloak Cutter. Burlington, Vt., 1881. http://archive.org/details/dresscloakcutter00heck.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
Iskin, Ruth. “Selling, Seduction, and Soliciting the Eye: Manet’s Bar at the Folies-Bergère.” Art Bulletin 77, no. 1 (March 1995): 25–44. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3046078.
Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
Koch, Augustus [from old catalog. The Cutter and Guide; Poughkeepsie, N.Y., 1883. http://archive.org/details/cutterguide01koch.
Lansdell, Avril. Fashion à La Carte, 1860-1900: A Study of Fashion through Cartes-de-Visite. History in Camera. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/436041340.
Larder, William [from old catalog. Thirty Years at the Cutting-Board: Being a Work Designed to Assist the Student to Acquire Knowledge in the Art of Cutting. Containing a Series of Diagrams Laid down to Measure. New York, 1882. http://archive.org/details/thirtyyearsatcut00lard.
Levitt, Sarah. Fashion in Photographs 1880-1900. Batsford Fashion Guides. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1008122374.
MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Grace Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Samuel Sachs. Whistler, Women, & Fashion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/757386204.
Maeder, Edward, and Evelyn Ackerman, eds. Dressed for the Country, 1860-1900: Exhibition. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/562356615.
Majer, Michele, Lenard R. Berlanstein, Marlis Schweitzer, and Sheila Stowell, eds. Staging Fashion, 1880-1920: Jane Hading, Lily Elsie, Billie Burke. New York: Bard Graduate Center, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/777951295.
Matyjaszkiewicz, Krystyna. “Costume in Tissot’s Pictures.” In James Tissot, 64–77. Oxford: Phaidon, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630471252.
Mitchell, The Jno J. “Standard” Work on Cutting. New York, The Jno. J. Mitchell co., 1884. http://archive.org/details/standardworkoncu01mitc.
Mitchell, The Jno J. “Standard” Work on Cutting. New York, The Jno. J. Mitchell co., 1886. http://archive.org/details/standardworkoncu00mitc.
Moore & Radcliffe, Cleveland. The Incline Method. Cleveland, Ohio, Moore & Radcliffe, 1889. http://archive.org/details/inclinemethod00moor.
Muller, Florence, Farid Chenoune, and Phillippe Thiébaut. Dior Impressions: The Inspiration and Influence of Impressionism at the House of Dior. New York: Rizzoli, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876440735.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. Full-Color Victorian Fashions, 1870-1893. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1999. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/40838676.
Piazza, Arianna, ed. Fashion 150: 150 Years, 150 Designers. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/961459695.
Ribeiro, Aileen. “The Art of Dress: Fashion in Renoir’s La Loge.” In Renoir at the Theatre: Looking at La Loge, edited by Ernst Vegelin van Claerbergen and Barnaby Wright, 45–63. London: The Courtauld Gallery, 2008. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/938162816.
Roskill, Mark W. “Early Impressionism and the Fashion Print.” The Burlington Magazine 112, no. 807 (June 1970): 390–95. http://www.jstor.org/stable/876343.
Schirrmeister, Anne. “La Dernière Mode: Berthe Morisot and Costume.” In Perspectives on Morisot, edited by T. J. Edelstein, 103–15. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1990. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/463695207.
Severa, Joan L. Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/552147475.
Sidlauskas, Susan. “Painting Skin: John Singer Sargent’s ‘Madame X.’” American Art 15, no. 3 (Autumn 2001): 8–33. https://doi.org/10.1086/444645.
Simon, Marie. Fashion in Art: The Second Empire and Impressionism. London: Zwemmer, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33973359.
Smith, Clarence B. [from old catalog]. The Cutter’s Manual. Providence? R.I., 1882. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009583624.
Smith, Clarence B. [from old catalog. The Cutter’s Manual; [Providence? R.I.], 1882. http://archive.org/details/cuttersmanual00smit.
Stone, Charles John [from old catalog. Stone’s Paramount-Cutter; a System for Cutting Garments, Based upon Scientific Principles, Including the Self-Varying Shoulder, in Connection with the Division of the Breast-Measure. Chicago, Meyer & brother, 1887. http://archive.org/details/stonesparamountc01ston.
Takeda, Sharon Sadako, Kaye Durland Spilker, Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell, Clarissa Esguerra, and Nicole LaBouff. Fashioning Fashion: European Dress in Detail, 1700-1915. New York: DelMonico Books/Prestel, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/971876353.
Pinterest
“1800-1899 Fabrics & Textiles.” Pinterest, 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1800-1899-fabrics-textiles/.
“1800-1899 Jewelry.” Pinterest, 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1800-1899-jewelry/.
“1800-1900 Patterns & Tutorials,” 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/patterns-tutorials-1800-1900/.
“1880s Accessories.” Pocket Museum, 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880s-accessories/.
“1880s Bodices.” Pocket Museum, 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880s-bodices/.
“1880s Fashion.” Pocket Museum, 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880-s-fashion/.
“1880s Fashion in Photographs.” Pocket Museum, 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880s-fashion-in-photographs/.
“1880s Fashion Plates.” Pocket Museum, 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880s-fashion-plates/.
“1880s Fashion: Men.” Pocket Museum, 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880s-fashion-men/.
“1880s Footwear.” Pocket Museum, 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880s-footwear/.
“1880s Headwear.” Pocket Museum, 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880s-headwear/.
“1880s Outerwear.” Pocket Museum, 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880s-outerwear/.
“1880s Portrait Paintings.” Pocket Museum, 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880s-portrait-paintings/.
“1880s Sportswear.” Pocket Museum, 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880s-sportswear/.
“1880s Underwear.” Pocket Museum, 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880s-underwear/.
“1880s Wedding Fashion.” Pocket Museum, 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880s-wedding-fashions/.
“Historic Costume - 19th Century,” 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/maellen/historic-costume-19th-century/.