Fashion at the start of the 1910s maintained elements of the previous decade, while beginning to move towards a simpler style. But mid-decade, World War I hit the Western world, causing fashion change to slow.


Fashion in the 1910s, like the decade itself, may be divided into two periods: before the war and during the war. World War I had a profound effect on society and culture as a whole and fashion was no exception. While changes in women’s fashion that manifested in the 1920s are often attributed to changes due to World War I, many of the popular styles of the twenties actually evolved from styles popular before the war and as early as the beginning of the decade.

The 1910s opened with a softer silhouette than the decade before, which was dominated by the “S-shape.” While the contorted shape created by straight-fronted corsets had softened into a more natural silhouette, the style in the early years of the decade still had an emphasis on the bust that echoed styles of the previous decade. The ball gown by G & E Spitzer (Fig. 1) shows how the S-curve softened in the early part of the decade but still relied on the top-heavy look. As this S-shape began to disappear altogether, skirts began to taper towards the bottom, like the example by Doeuillet (Fig. 3) and a completely new style, that of a revived empire waist, emerged as well.

Evening dress

Fig. 1 - G & E Spitzer (Austrian). Evening dress, 1910-12. Silk, pearl, glass. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2003.46. Purchase, Irene Lewisohn Bequest, 2003. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

At Rockaway Hunt Meet -- fashion mannikins

Fig. 2 - Artist unknown. At Rockaway Hunt Meet -- fashion mannikins, Between ca. 1910 and ca. 1915. 1 negative : glass; (5 x 7 in). Washington: George Grantham Bain Collection, Library of Congress. Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-19041 (digital file from original negative). Source: Library of Congress

Evening dress

Fig. 3 - Georges Doeuillet (French, 1865-1929). Evening dress, 1910-13. Silk, rhinestones. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.1338. Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009; Gift of Mrs. Frederick H. Prince, Jr., 1967. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

An important development at the beginning of the decade was the rise of Orientalism. The Ballets Russes performed Schéhérazade (a ballet based on One Thousand and One Nights) in Paris in 1910, setting off the craze. Paul Poiret helped popularize this look, which featured draped fabrics, vibrant colors, and a column-like silhouette. He even introduced “harem” pantaloons in 1911, a ballooning pair of trousers that only the most daring of women opted to wear. The fancy dress costume (Fig. 4) worn to his party “The Thousand and Second Night” epitomizes this style.

Poiret’s fashions dominated the first half of the decade if only because they were inventive and news-making. In 1911, he introduced the “hobble skirt” (Fig. 5) which narrowed so much at the bottom of the skirt that it made it difficult for women to walk. His striped dress from 1910 (Fig. 6) hints at this silhouette. He liked to claim that he had abolished the corset and, indeed, his loose chemise dresses no longer required the rigid undergarment, though other designers were also moving away from corseted looks at the same time. Another of his innovative silhouettes included the “lampshade tunic.” In this way, you begin to see how Poiret’s playful and inventive approach to fashion led to the popular styles of the twenties.

Fancy dress costume

Fig. 4 - Paul Poiret (French, 1879–1944). Fancy dress costume, 1911. Metal, silk, cotton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983.8a, b. Purchase, Irene Lewisohn Trust Gift, 1983. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Hobble Skirt Postcard

Fig. 5 - Author unknown. Hobble Skirt Postcard, ca. 1911. Source: Wikimedia

Evening dress

Fig. 6 - Paul Poiret (French, 1879–1944). Evening dress, 1910. Silk, linen. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.1289. Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009; Gift of Ogden Goelet, Peter Goelet and Madison Clews in memory of Mrs. Henry Clews, 1961. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

5th Avenue Easter Parade

Fig. 7 - Photographer unknown (American). 5th Avenue Easter Parade, 1911. Source: Pinterest

New York Recruiting Office, 1918

Fig. 8 - USMC Archives from Quantico. New York Recruiting Office, 1918, 1918. Marine Corps Women's Marine Reserve (COLL/981), Marine Corps Archives & Special Collections. Source: Wikimedia

Final Review of Marine Reservists and Navy Yeoman, 1919

Fig. 9 - USMC Archives from Quantico. Final Review of Marine Reservists and Navy Yeoman, 1919, 1919. Marine Corps Women's Marine Reserve (COLL/981), Marine Corps Archives & Special Collections. Source: Flickr

Though Poiret made a formidable impression on early 1910s fashion, he was by no means the only prominent designer. Lucille, or Lady Duff Gordon, was a popular designer whose London-based business crossed the Atlantic to New York and Chicago at the beginning of the decade. French designer Jacques Doucet enjoyed popularity for his fluid designs, while Mariano Fortuny of Venice patented new processes of pleating and dyeing.

In 1914, the world was thrown into the “war to end all wars.” Tunics worn over skirts, like the ones seen in the picture of the Rockaway Hung Meet (Fig. 2), were a popular wartime fashion, as were simple, utilitarian clothing. Even French designers like Jacques Doucet produced simple, cotton designs during the war (Fig. 12). Women began to wear uniforms, including overalls and trousers, as they worked in munitions factories for the war effort.

Though the US didn’t enter the war until 1917, the war’s effect on fashion was already felt in France, the UK, and the rest of Europe. France had been the center of fashion for years and the war slowed, though did not stop entirely, production and distribution of new fashions. The Worth evening dress from 1916 shows that fashion was not entirely forgotten (Fig. 10), as does the image of women who came to enlist in the Marines in 1918 (Fig. 8). For women, military uniforms had elements of current fashion: the long skirts with tunics or jackets worn over them were reminiscent of civilian dress. The white uniforms of the female Navy Yeomen (Fig. 9) are especially evocative of styles worn by the Suffragettes.

After the war ended, simple styles continued and a “barrel”-like silhouette emerged. Fashion historian James Laver writes in Costume and Fashion: A Concise History that “the effect was completely tubular. Skirts were still long, but an attempt was made to confine the body in a cylinder” (230). This would eventually develop into the popular flapper look of the next decade and Poiret’s pleated skirt and cocoon coat (Fig. 11) strongly hint at what was to come.

Evening dress

Fig. 10 - House of Worth (French, 1858–1956). Evening dress, 1916. Silk, metal, rhinestones. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.3235. Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009; Gift of Mrs. C. Oliver Iselin, 1961. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art


Fig. 11 - Paul Poiret (French, 1879–1944). Coat, 1918. Wool, rayon. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005.201. Isabel Shults Fund, 2005. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art


Fig. 12 - Jacques Doucet (French, 1853–1929). Dress, 1918-19. Cotton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.51.97.10a, b. Purchase, Irene Lewisohn Bequest, 1951. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Fashion Icon: Denise Poiret

Paul Poiret’s wife, Denise, was both his model and muse, thrusting her into the role of a fashion icon: “Muse as well as model, Denise Poiret was a living advertisement for her husband, who used her as the prototype figure for his Empire line dresses” (Lécallier). Ahead of its time, her slim figure would later become all the rage in the following decade and Poiret’s chemise dresses (Fig. 2) were designed specifically with her in mind. In their 2007 exhibition about Poiret, The Metropolitan Museum of Art described Denise’s influence on both her husband and fashion:

“Slim, youthful, and uncorseted, she was the prototype of la garçonne. Poiret used her slender figure as the basis for his radically simplified constructions. In 1913 he told Vogue, ‘My wife is the inspiration for all my creations; she is the expression of all my ideals.’ If Poiret was the prophet of modernism, Denise was its most compelling incarnation.” (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Denise donned her husband’s controversial harem pants (with a wired skirt) to an extravagant costume party called “The Thousand and Second Night” (a clear reference to the popularity of Schéhérazade) in 1911 (Fig. 1). The same style was later used in costumes he produced in 1913, and they made their debut outside of the realm of costume later that year. Together with her husband, the duo epitomized avant-garde fashion in the 1910s.

Paul Poiret and his wife Denise at a party on June 24

Fig. 1 - Henri Manuel (French, 1874–1947). Paul Poiret and his wife Denise at a party on June 24, 1911. Source: Wikimedia

Paul Poiret fashion

Fig. 2 - Paul Poiret (French, 1879-1944). Paul Poiret fashion, 1913. Washington: Library of Congress. Source: Wikimedia


A group of four men from the Imperial Hotel, The Mall, Waterford.

Fig. 1 - Artist unknown (Irish). A group of four men from the Imperial Hotel, The Mall, Waterford., May 27, 1914. Dublin: National Library of Ireland. NLI Ref.: POOLEWP 2548. Source: Flickr

The Tailor and Cutter Fashions

Fig. 2 - Artist unknown. The Tailor and Cutter Fashions, 1913. New York: The Met, Costume Institute Fashion Plates. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Met Digital Collections

In the early 1910s, men’s fashion largely continued on from the previous decade. Lounge suits – three-piece suits much like business suits today – increased in popularity as a more casual alternative to the more formal suits of years previous. There were various styles of these suits (Figs. 1 & 2). Trouser legs crept up to ankle length for a shorter look, often with the cuffs turned up. Laver writes:

“trousers tended to be rather short and very narrow, and young men were beginning to wear them with permanent turn-ups and with a sharp crease in front, which had become possible since the mid 1890s with the invention of the trouser-press.” (221-222)

The lounge suit typically consisted of a sack coat, a waistcoat (vest), and trousers. Collars were worn starched and high on the neck. It was referred to as a “lounge suit” because it was far less formal than the suit worn with a frock coat. Though it was worn more frequently in the 1910s, it was previously a well-to-do man’s least formal suit, one that would have been worn to lounge in his home. The lounge suit was often worn with a Homburg hat, a felt hat with a dent down the top, or a bowler hat. Men of the upper-classes continued to wear top hats. An image showing Winston Churchill and his cousin Lord Londonderry in 1919 shows how the morning suit differed from the lounge suit (Fig. 4).

While the lounge suit enjoyed popularity on a day-to-day basis, the frock coat and morning coat continued to have prominence for formal day events. Evening wear was dominated by dark tailcoats,  worn with a waistcoat and trousers. However, the less formal tuxedo was also an acceptable form of evening wear. Men sported quite a range of suits, sportswear, and evening wear for every occasion (Fig. 3).

The Gentleman's Tailor, Fashions for Spring and Summer

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown. The Gentleman's Tailor, Fashions for Spring and Summer, 1914. New York: The Met, The Costume Institute Fashion Plates. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Met Digital Collections

Winston Churchill and his cousin Lord Londonderry

Fig. 4 - Angevin Knight. Winston Churchill and his cousin Lord Londonderry, 1919. Source: Wikimedia

Like womenswear, menswear saw a divide between before World War I began and during/after the war. Of course, many men joined the war effort by enlisting in the military. The Victoria and Albert Museum writes, “from 1914 to the end of the decade, many men were photographed in military uniform” (History of Fashion 1900-1970).

Though men’s fashion would return to the three-piece suit after the war, the conflict did have a lasting effect on both men and women’s fashion. Though part of their uniform and not a fashion statement at the time, the trench coat saw its rise (and was even given its name) in the desperate conditions on the front in World War I. British officers, who outfitted themselves, began to buy the coats that had been developed in the mid-nineteenth century as a functional part of their uniform. Lighter than the coat issued by the British army, water resistant, and a khaki color, the coats helped keep officers warm and dry. Burberry (Fig. 5) and Aquascutum sold these coats to both men and women during the war. It was utilitarian at the time but would later be adopted by Hollywood, providing the garment with a lasting legacy that is still felt today.

Burberry Advertisement 1916

Fig. 5 - Burberry (British). Burberry Advertisement 1916, 1916. The Sphere. Source: Wikimedia


Robes d'été de Jeanne Lanvin

Fig. 1 - Jeanne Lanvin (French, 1867-1946). Robes d'été de Jeanne Lanvin, 1914. New York: The Met, The Costume Institute Fashion Plates. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Met Digital Collections

Carnegy children, 15 December

Fig. 2 - David Knights Whittome (British, 1876-1943). Carnegy children, 15 December, 1916. Source: Wikimedia

Children’s dress from 1910-1919 saw a move toward greater simplicity. The smock dress, often worn with a pinafore, which had been popular since the 1890s continued to be worn by young girls in the first part of the decade and can be seen in the fashion plate from 1914 (Fig. 1). With material rationing during the war, girl’s dresses became shorter with less embellishment, like the sisters in 1919 who don’t have any embellishment on their dresses at all (Fig. 4). Dress historian Jayne Shrimpton wrote for the blog Find My Past:

“By around the WWI era, many girls were wearing plainer dresses that ended above the knee (often showing long knickers underneath!), were fitted at the waist and had three-quarter length sleeves.” (Moore)

Young girls had begun to wear styles that were simpler and less like mini versions of womenswear.

Young boys, too, looked less like little adults. Sailor suits, like the ones worn by the two boys in the background of the fashion plate and by the Mackay boy (Fig. 1 and Fig. 3), and knee-length trousers were popular options. Stretchy, knitted fabrics were popular for boys – and girls – as they were comfortable, allowed for greater freedom of movement, and were easy to make. Both Carnegy brother and sister wear knitted sweaters in 1916 (Fig. 2). By the 1910s, many schools had uniforms for boys consisting of a flannel blazer and shorts (for younger boys) and trousers (for older boys). The young man below has graduated onto trousers, but wears a flannel blazer and tie (Fig. 4). This uniform, or something similar, was often worn outside of school, as well. Like other aspects of fashion in the 1910s, World War I also had an effect on young boys’ fashion as military elements crept into their attire in the latter half of the decade.

C. Mackay & children

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown. C. Mackay & children, between ca. 1910 and ca. 1915. 1 negative : glass; (5 x 7 in or smaller). Washington: Library of Congress, George Grantham Bain Collection. Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-17240 (digital file from original negative). Source: Library of Congress


Fig. 4 - Bain News Service. Homer, 1919. 1 negative : glass; (5 x 7 in or smaller). Washington: Library of Congress, George Grantham Bain Collection. Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-29053 (digital file from original negative). Source: Library of Congress


Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1910-1919
  • 1910 – Edward VII died; George V became King of England, Mariano Fortuny patents his pleating and dyeing process, Paul Poiret designs a range of loose-fitting, Oriental-inspired dresses, paving the way for modern dress.
  • 1912 – China formed a republic, sinking of the Titanic, Nijinsky danced Afternoon of a Faun.
  • 1913 – Armory Art Show, The first modern brassiere is patented by New York socialite, Mary Phelps Jacob. Old fashioned corsets are no longer suitable to wear under new lighter, less formal garments. The tango arrives in most European capitals. Jean Paquin designs gowns to be worn for dancing the tango, which is shown during, “dress parades” at popular “Tango Teas” held in London. Coco Chanel opens a boutique in the French seaside resort, Deauville.
  • 1914 – Panama Canal opened, World War I begins, ushering in an era of darker colors and simple cuts. Women take over men’s jobs, accelerating the trend toward practical garments. Burberry is commissioned to adapt army officer’s coats for the trenches. The trench coat is born.
  • 1915 – Birth of a Nation by D.W. Griffith, Fashion magazine La Gazette du Bon Ton shows full skirts with hemlines above the ankle. They are called the “war crinoline” by the fashion press, who promote the style as “patriotic” and “practical.”
  • 1916 – Margaret Sanger opened birth control clinic.
  • 1917 – The U.S. declared war on Germany, Russian Czar overthrown. Invented by Gideon Sundback in 1913 the zipper is finally patented in 1917. It is first used for closing rubber boots in the 1920s.
  • 1919 – League of Nations chartered, Hollywood’s United Artists founded.

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

Periodicals (Digitized)

Les Modes : Revue Mensuelle Illustrée Des Arts Décoratifs Appliqués à La Femme (1902-1937), 1910s. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb32817646w/date.r=les+modes.langEN.
The Harper’s Bazaar Archive (Subscription Required), 1910s. https://www.proquest.com/products-services/Harpers-Bazaar-Archive.html.
Vogue Archive (Subscription Required), 1910s. https://login.voguearchive.com.
Wiener Mode : Mode- u. Familien-Zeitschrift. Vol. 32. Vienna, 1918. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2193061.

Bailey, Oliver D. The Whirl of Life, 1915. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0006276/.
DeMille, Cecil B. The Cheat, 1915. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0005078/.
DeMille, Cecil B., and Joseph Levering. The Little American, 1917. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0008188/.
Gasnier, Louis J., and Donald MacKenzie. The Perils of Pauline, 1914. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0004465/.
Griffith, D. W. The New York Hat, 1912. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0002391/.
Griffith, D. W. True Heart Susie, 1919. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0010806/.
Griffith, D. W. Way Down East, 1920. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0011841/.
Haydon, J. Charles. The Strange Case of Mary Page, 1916. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0007401/.
Jaccard, Jacques, and Leopold Wharton. Patria, 1917. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0008411/.
José, Edward. Poppy, 1917. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0008444/.
Normand, Mabel. Mabel’s Blunder, 1914. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0004279/.
Parker, Albert. Eyes of Youth, 1919. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0010103/.
Pathé, British. Here’s To The Memory - Part 5, 1910s. https://www.britishpathe.com/video/heres-to-the-memory-part-5.
Powell, Frank. A Fool There Was, 1915. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0005339/.
Sennett, Mack, and Charles Bennett. Tillie’s Punctured Romance, 1914. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0004707/.

Secondary Sources

Also see the 20th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.


“History of Fashion 1900 - 1970,” July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1900-1970/.
“Introduction to 20th-Century Fashion,” October 18, 2012. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-20th-century-fashion/.
Bolton, Authors: Harold Koda, Andrew. “Paul Poiret (1879–1944) | Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Accessed February 26, 2019. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/poir/hd_poir.htm.

Abel, Richard. Silent Film. London: Athlone Press, 1999. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/878136501.
Amnéus, Cynthia. A Separate Sphere: Dressmakers in Cincinnati’s Golden Age, 1877-1922. Costume Society of America Series. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/907017627.
Aubenas, Sylvie, Virginie Chardin, and Xavier Demange. Elegance: The Seeberger Brothers and the Birth of Fashion Photography, 1909-1939. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/71286680.
Basinger, Jeanine. Silent Stars. New York: Knopf, 2000. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/248803651.
Battersby, Martin. Art Deco Fashion: French Designers 1908-1925. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1974. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/925159545.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
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Brown, Elspeth H. “De Meyer at Vogue: Commercializing Queer Affect in First World War-Era Fashion Photography.” Photography & Culture 2, no. 3 (November 2009): 253–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/175145109X12532077132275.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Card, James. Seductive Cinema: The Art of Silent Film. New York: Knopf, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/833449790.
Carlstrom, Jno A. (John Alcott). Every Day Alterations; a Compendium of Causes, Effects and Remedies for the More Common Errors in Cutting and Making Men’s Garment. New York, The International Tailor, 1916. http://archive.org/details/everydayalterati00carl.
Casalis, Laura, ed. Fashion in Paris: From the “Journal Des Dames et Des Modes”, 1912-1913. London: Thames and Hudson, 1980. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/452556186.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume, Society. La Belle Epoque: Costume 1890-1914; Proceedings of the First Annual Conference of the Costume Society, April 1967. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1968. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/877604555.
Croonborg, Frederick Timothy. New Supreme System for Production of Men’s Garments. New York, Chicago, Croonborg Publication Fund, 1917. http://archive.org/details/newsupremesystem00croo.
Engelmann, Gustav] [from old catalog. The American Garment Cutter for Women’s Garments. New York [etc.] American fashion company, 1913. http://archive.org/details/americangarmentc00enge.
Etherington-Smith, Meredith, and Jeremy Pilcher. The “It” Girls: Lucy, Lady Duff Gordon, the Couturière “Lucile”, and Elinor Glyn, Romantic Novelist. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1986. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/18627273.
Evans, Caroline. The Mechanical Smile: Modernism and the First Fashion Shows in France and America 1900-1929. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/855558337.
Finamore, Michelle Tolini. “Fashioning Early Cinema: Dress and Representation in American Film, 1905-1930,” 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/609666883.
Font, Lourdes M. “International Couture: The Opportunities and Challenges of Expansion, 1880–1920.” Business History 54, no. 1 (February 1, 2012): 30–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2011.626977.
Framke, Gisela. Künstler ziehen an: Avantgarde-Mode in Europa 1910-1939. Heidelberg: Braus, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/40061558.
Gibson, L. [from old catalog. The International Cutting School’s System of Cutting. Chicago, Ill. H.G. Adair, 1913. http://archive.org/details/internationalcut00gibs.
Gimbel, Brothers. Gimbel’s Illustrated 1915 Fashion Catalog. New York: Dover Publications, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1008215635.
Gnoli, Sofia, and Sofia Gnoli. The Origins of Italian Fashion: 1900-45. London: Victoria & Albert Publishing, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/963875018.
Gordon, Selden Smith. Gordon’s Work on Cutting Men’s Garments; Huntington, N.Y., The S. S. Gordon company, 1910. http://archive.org/details/gordonsworkoncut00gord.
Grieveson, Lee. The Silent Cinema Reader. London: Routledge, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/552119039.
Gurney, Edmund [from old catalog. Efficiency, Simplicity, Economy in Cutting and Making Ladies’ Garments. [Portland, Or., F. w. Baltes and company, printers], 1917. http://archive.org/details/efficiencysimpli00gurn.
Higashi, Somiko. Virgins, Vamps, and Flappers, 2000. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/85041410.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Holley, Jennifer Kay. “Elinor Glyn: A Novelist and Screenwriter Recounts Women’s Fashion, 1900-1927,” 2006.
Kellerman, Annette. Physical Beauty: How to Keep It ... Illustrated. William Heinemann: London, 1919. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/560948131.
Koda, Harold, and Andrew Bolton. Poiret. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/81452910.
Lane, Andrew. Motoring Costume. 197. Princes Risborough: Shire, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/925335863.
Lehmann, William [from old catalog. Practical Instruction, How to Alter Ill-Fitting Garments and How to Handle Try-Ons, Showing Illustrations How to Avoid Faults from the Beginning .. Chicago [R.J. Jefferson printing co., 1919. http://archive.org/details/practicalinstruc00lehm.
Leong, Roger, and Christine Dixon, eds. From Russia with Love: Costumes for the Ballets Russes 1909-1933. Canberra: National Gallery of Australia, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/42876066.
Majer, Michele, Lenard R. Berlanstein, Marlis Schweitzer, and Sheila Stowell, eds. Staging Fashion, 1880-1920: Jane Hading, Lily Elsie, Billie Burke. New York: Bard Graduate Center, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/777951295.
Mansfield, A. D., and Phillis Emily Cunnington. Handbook of English Costume in the Twentieth Century, 1900-1950. Boston: Plays, Inc, 1973. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1008080843.
Mendes, Valerie D., and Amy De La Haye. Fashion since 1900. 2nd ed. World of Art. London: Thames & Hudson, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/751457342.
Merz, William [from old catalog. Merz’s Practical Cutting System for Ladies’ Jackets and Cloaks .. [New York?] W. Merz, 1911. http://archive.org/details/merzspracticalcu00merz.
Milbank, Caroline Rennolds, and Harold Koda. Fashion: A Timeline in Photographs: 1850 to Today. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/905518225.
Mongelli, Giuseppe A. Il Taglio Da Uomo; Sistema Teorico-Pratico Illustrato Secondo Le Esigenze Dell’ Arte Moderna (Double Balance System). Philadelphia, Pa., 1910. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011434720.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. Everyday Fashions, 1909-1920, as Pictured in Sears Catalogs. New York: Dover, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/237893662.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. Parisian Fashions of the Teens: 352 Elegant Costumes from L’art et La Mode. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc, 2002. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/50984493.
Penn, Irving, and Diana Vreeland. Inventive Paris Clothes, 1909-1939: A Photographic Essay. A Studio Book. New York: Viking Press, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301546092.
Popular gentleman service company, Philadelphia [from old catalog. Popular Gentleman System for Cutting and Designing of Men’s Garments. Philadelphia, Pa., Popular gentleman service company, 1917. http://archive.org/details/populargentleman00popu.
Regal, Samuel] 1866-[from old catalog. The American Garment Cutter. New York [etc.] American fashion company, 1914. http://archive.org/details/americangarmentc02rega.
Rosenbleet, Joel [from old catalog. Rosenbleet’s Perfect System of Ladies’ Garment Cutting, Specially Designed for Self Instruction. Los Angeles, The author, 1911. http://archive.org/details/rosenbleetsperf00rose.
Rosenfeld, I. (Isidor). The Practical Designer, for Women’s, Misses’, Juniors’ & Children’s Cloaks & Suits, Shirt Waist Suits and Dresses, with Grading and Special Measurements, According to the Most Approved & up-to-Date Method; Specially Designed for Self Instruction. New York [Printed by Maisel bros.], 1911. http://archive.org/details/practicaldesigne02rose.
Schoeffler, O. E., and William Gale. Esquire’s Encyclopedia of 20th Century Men’s Fashions. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/993378739.
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“1900-1960 Fabrics & Textiles,” 1900s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1900-1960-fabrics-textiles/.
“1910s Fashion Illustrations,” 1910s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1910s-fashion-illustrations/.
“1910s Fashion in Photographs,” 1910s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1910s-fashion-in-photographs/.
“1910s Patterns & Tutorials,” 1910s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/patterns-tutorials-1910s/.
“1910s Suits, Walking Suits & Uniforms,” 1910s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1910s-suits-walking-suits-uniforms/.