Category: Middle Ages


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Blair, John, and Nigel Ramsay. English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products. London: Hambledon and London, 2001.
Brandenburgh, Chrystel R. Clothes Make the Man: Early Medieval Textiles from the Netherlands. Archaeological Studies Leiden University (ASLU) 30. Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2016.
Burns, E. Jane. Courtly Love Undressed: Reading through Clothes in Medieval French Culture. The Middle Ages Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002.
Carus-Wilson, E. M., N. B. Harte, and Kenneth G. Ponting, eds. Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe: Essays in Memory of Professor E.M. Carus-Wilson. Pasold Studies in Textile History 2. London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1983.
Crowfoot, Elisabeth, Frances Pritchard, and Kay Staniland. Textiles and Clothing: C.1150-c.1450. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London 4. London: HMSO, 1992.
Cunnington, Phillis. Costume of Household Servants, from the Middle Ages to 1900. London: A and C Black, 1974.
Cunnington, C. Willett, and Phillis Emily Cunnington. Handbook of English Mediaeval Costume. 2nd ed. London: Faber, 1969.
Cunnington, Phillis, Catherine Lucas, and A. D. Mansfield. Occupational Costume in England from the Eleventh Century to 1914. London: Black, 1976.
Davanzo Poli, Doretta, ed. I Mestieri della moda a Venezia: serenissima: the arts of fashion in Venice from the 13th to the 18th century, Nov. 28, 1995-Jan. 20, 1996. Rev. ed. Brenta: Consorzio maestri calzturieri del Brenta, 1995.
Dimitrova, Kate, Margaret Goehring, David Ganz, Warren T. Woodfin, Henry Schilb, Christiane Elster, Stefanie Seeberg, et al., eds. Dressing the Part: Textiles as Propaganda in the Middle Ages. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2014.
Edge, David, and John Miles Paddock. Arms & Armor of the Medieval Knight: An Illustrated History of Weaponry in the Middle Ages. New York: Crescent Books, 1996.
Egan, Geoff, and Frances Pritchard. Dress Accessories, c. 1150 - c. 1450. New ed. 3. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2002.
Evans, Joan. Dress in Medieval France. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952.
Ewing, Thor. Viking Clothing. Stroud: Tempus, 2006.
Goddard, Eunice. Women’s Costume in French Texts of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. Baltimore, 1927.
Grew, Francis, and Margrethe de Neergaard, eds. Shoes and Pattens. New ed., Reprinted in paperback. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London 2. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2013.
Hartley, Dorothy, and Francis Michael Kelly. Mediæval Costume and Life: A Review of Their Social Aspects Arranged under Various Classes and Workers with Instructions for Making Numerous Types of Dress. London: B.T. Batsford, Ltd, 1931.
Heller, Sarah-Grace. Fashion in Medieval France. Gallica, v. 3. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2007.
Hodges, Laura F. Chaucer and Costume: The Secular Pilgrims in the General Prologue. Chaucer Studies 26. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2000.
Houston, Mary G. Medieval Costume in England and France: The 13th, 14th, and 15th Centuries. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
Killerby, Catherine Kovesi. Sumptuary Law in Italy, 1200-1500. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005.
Koslin, Désirée G., and Janet Ellen Snyder, eds. Encountering Medieval Textiles and Dress: Objects, Texts, Images. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
Lloyd, T. H. The English Wool Trade in the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.
Netherton, Robin, and Gale R. Owen-Crocker. Medieval Clothing and Textiles. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2005.
Owen-Crocker, Gale R. Dress in Anglo-Saxon England. Rev. and enl. Ed. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2010.
Piponnier, Françoise, and Perrine Mane. Dress in the Middle Ages. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
Rudy, Kathryn M., and Barbara Baert, eds. Weaving, Veiling, and Dressing: Textiles and Their Metaphors in the Late Middle Ages. Medieval Church Studies 12. Turnhout: Brepols, 2007.
Scott, Margaret. Fashion in the Middle Ages. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2011.
Spufford, Peter. Power and Profit: The Merchant in Medieval Europe. London: Thames & Hudson, 2006.
Sronková, Olga. Gothic Woman’s Fashion. Prague: Artia, 1954.
Staniland, Kay. “Clothing Provision and the Great Wardrobe in the Mid-Thirteenth Century.” Textile History 22, no. 2 (January 1, 1991): 239–52.
Stuard, Susan Mosher. Gilding the Market: Luxury and Fashion in Fourteenth Century Italy. Middle Ages Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.
Thursfield, Sarah. The Medieval Tailor’s Assistant: Making Common Garments, 1200-1500. Carlton: Ruth Bean, 2001.
Van Buren, Anne, and Roger S. Wieck. Illuminating Fashion: Dress in the Art of Medieval France and the Netherlands, 1325-1515. New York: The Morgan Library & Museum, 2011.
Veale, Elspeth M. The English Fur Trade in the Later Middle Ages. 2nd ed. London Record Society Publications, v. 38. London: London Record Society, 2003.
Vecellio, Cesare. Vecellio’s Renaissance Costume Book: All 500 Woodcut Illustrations from the Famous Sixteenth-Century Compendium of World Costume. Dover Pictorial Archive Series. New York: Dover Publications, 1977.
Vincent, Susan J., and Sarah-Grace Heller, eds. A Cultural History of Dress and Fashion: The Medieval Age (800-1450). London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017.
Wilson, David M. The Bayeux Tapestry: The Complete Tapestry in Color. New York: Knopf, 1985.
Woolley, Linda. Medieval Life and Leisure in the Devonshire Hunting Tapestries. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 2007.
Zijlstra-Zweens, H. M. Of His Array Telle i No Lenger Tale: Aspects of Costume, Arms and Armour in Western Europe, 1200-1400. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1988.

Early Middle Ages

Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 1: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1660-1860. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996.
Barreto, Cristina, and Martin Lancaster. Napoleon and the Empire of Fashion: 1795-1815. Milano: Skira, 2010.
Bissonnette, Anne. Fashion on the Ohio Frontier, 1790-1840. Kent: Kent State University Museum, 2003.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012.
Brunereau, Jeanne. Presse Féminine et Critique Littéraire de 1800 à 1830 : Leurs Rapports Avec l’histoire de Femmes. France: EVE et son espace créatif, 2000.
Cage, E. Claire. “The Sartorial Self: Neoclassical Fashion and Gender Identity in France, 1797–1804.” Eighteenth Century Studies 42, no. 2 (2009): 193–215.
Costume, Society. The So-Called Age of Elegance: Costume 1785-1820, Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference of the Costume Society, 1970. London: The Costume Society, 1971.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015.
DeLorme, Eleanor P., and Bernard Chevallier, eds. Joséphine and the Arts of the Empire. Los Angeles: J.P. Getty Museum, 2005.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017.
Font, Lourdes M., and Elizabeth McMahon. “LeRoy, Louis Hippolyte.” In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed July 18, 2017.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011.
Jensen, Heather Belnap. “Marketing the Maternal Body in the Public Spaces of Post-Revolutionary Paris.” In Women, Femininity, and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789–1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 17–33. Burlington: Ashgate, 2014.
Jensen, Heather Belnap. “The Journal Des Dames et Des Modes: Fashioning Women in the Arts, c. 1800–1815.” Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide 5, no. 1 (March 2006).
Joannis, Claudette, ed. Joséphine, Imperatrice de La Mode: L’élégance Sous l’Empire. Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 2007.
Kleinert, Annemarie. Le “Journal Des Dames et Des Modes” : Ou La Conquête de l’Europe Féminin (1797-1839). Beihefte Zu Francia, Bd. 46. Stuttgart: J. Thorbecke, 2001.
Meunier, Céline. Dans les armoires de l’impératrice Joséphine: la collection de costumes féminins du château de Malmaison. Paris: Art Lys, 2016.
Queen, James, and William Lapsley. The Taylors’ Instructor, or, A Comprehensive Analysis, of the Elements of Cutting Garments, of Every Kind ... Illustrated with Eight Appropriate Engravings. Philadelphia, Printed for, and sold by, the authors, 1809.
Ribeiro, Aileen. The Art of Dress: Fashion in England and France 1750 to 1820. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.
Siegfried, Susan. “The Visual Culture of Fashion and the Classical Ideal in Post-Revolutionary France.” The Art Bulletin 97, no. 1 (March 2015): 77–99.
Siegfried, Susan. “Fashion and the Reinvention of Court Costume in Portrayals of Josephine de Beauharnais (1794–1809).” Apparence(s), May 2015.
Solomon, Carol. The Empress Josephine: Art & Royal Identity. Amherst: Mead Art Museum, 2005.
Takeda, Sharon Sadako, Kaye Durland Spilker, Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell, Clarissa Esguerra, and Nicole LaBouff. Fashioning Fashion: European Dress in Detail, 1700-1915. New York: DelMonico Books/Prestel, 2010.
Tortora, Phyllis G., and Sara B. Marcketti. Survey of Historic Costume. Sixth edition. New York: Fairchild Books, 2015.
Vincent, Susan J., and Denise Amy Baxter, eds. A Cultural History of Dress and Fashion: The Age of Empire (1800-1920). London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017.
Zieseniss, Charles Otto, and Katell Le Bourhis, eds. The Age of Napoleon: Costume from Revolution to Empire, 1789-1815. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1989.


Ball, Jennifer L. Byzantine Dress: Representations of Secular Dress. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2090.
Brooks, Sarah T, ed. Byzantium: Faith, and Power (1261-1557) : Perspectives on Late Byzantine Art and Culture. New York; New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.
King, Donald. “Roman and Byzantine Dress in Egypt.” Costume 30, no. 1 (January 1, 1996): 1–15.


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Middle Ages

Annaud, Jean-Jacques. The Name of the Rose, 1986.
Axel, Gabriel. Royal Deceit, 1994.
Bergman, Ingmar. The Seventh Seal. Svensk Filmindustri, Janus Films, 1957.
Bergman, Ingmar. The Virgin Spring, 1960.
Boorman, John. Excalibur, 1981.
Branagh, Kenneth. Thor, 2011.
Bresson, Robert. Lancelot of the Lake, 1974.
Brooks, Mel. Robin Hood: Men in Tights, 1993.
Butler, David. King Richard and the Crusaders, 1954.
Curtiz, Michael, and William Keighley. The Adventures of Robin Hood, 1938.
DeMille, Cecil B. The Crusades, 1935.
Eisenstein, Sergei. Alexander Nevsky. Mosfilm, 1938.
Fleischer, Richard. The Vikings, 1958.
Frank, Melvin, and Norman Panama. The Court Jester, 1956.
Garnett, Tay. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court, 1949.
Gibson, Mel. Braveheart. Paramount Pictures, 1995.
Gilliam, Terry, and Terry Jones. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, 1975.
Glenville, Peter. Becket. Paramount Pictures, 1964.
Gunnarsson, Sturla. Beowulf & Grendel, 2006.
Harvey, Anthony. The Lion in Winter, 1968.
Hathaway, Henry. Prince Valiant, 1954.
Helgeland, Brian. A Knight’s Tale, 2001.
Huston, John. A Walk with Love and Death, 1969.
Lester, Richard. Robin and Marian, 1976.
Logan, Joshua. Camelot. Warner Bros. Pictures, 1967.
Mann, Anthony. El Cid. Weinstein Company, 1961.
Pasolini, Pier Paolo. The Decameron, 1971.
Powell, Dick. The Conqueror, 1956.
Reynolds, Kevin. Tristan + Isolde, 2006.
Reynolds, Kevin. Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, 1991.
Rohmer, Éric. Perceval, 1979.
Schaffner, Franklin J. The War Lord, 1965.
Scott, Ridley. Robin Hood, 2010.
Scott, Ridley. Kingdom of Heaven, 2005.
Sena, Dominic. Season of the Witch, 2011.
Smith, Christopher. Black Death, 2010.
Tavernier, Bertrand. Beatrice, 1987.
Thorpe, Richard. Ivanhoe, 1953.
Zeffirelli, Franco. Hamlet, 1991.
Zucker, Jerry. First Knight, 1995.

Entries to Date

12th century – Norman Mosaics

The Norman Mosaics are a series of 12th-century artworks in churches across Sicily. The dress seen in these mosaics reflects Byzantine styles including the divetesion and loros. The mosaics have notably also served as inspiration for designers in the 21st century.


Clothing during the Byzantine era was strictly regulated based on identity, status, rank, and gender. Visual and literary sources from the period provide a glimpse to Byzantine court and upper-class dress. 

Early Middle Ages

OVERVIEW Womenswear [To come…] Fig. 1 - Artist unknown. Coronation of a prince : formerly identified with Charlemagne, circa 870. Illumination on parchment; 27 ×...


A rectangular panel, often ornamented with embroidery or jewels, attached to the front of a cloak. Worn as a sign of status by Byzantine emperors and other important officials.


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