Basque bodices with lace trimming were highly fashionable for women in the year 1880. Polka-dotted textiles appeared frequently in fashion plates, and the color purple was considered stylish.



he coat-basque, a long, coat-like bodice that fully encased the torso and often extended into coat-tails resembling the back of a man’s frock coat (Fig. 1), was extremely fashionable during the 1880s. This popularity, which came out of the late 1870s and lasted into the 1890s, is referenced in an 1880 column titled “Fashions for April” in Peterson’s Magazine:

“There is no decided change in the style of making dresses; short ones are always seen on the street; narrow and flat skirts in front, little draping in the back with coat-basques, mantillas or basques, just as fancy dictates. Much lace is used for trimming dresses, especially about the neck. Mantles and jackets are of all varieties.” (328)

As it was a basic bodice shape in this period, a basque could be trimmed and cut in a variety of ways. The gown in figure 2 has ostentatiously long coat-tails in comparison to figure 1, and the fashion plate in figure 3 shows that decorations on the front of the bodice varied widely, as well as the neckline and hem shapes. The April 17th issue of Harper’s Bazar describes another:

“The coat basque is an excellent model, and is very stylishly ornamented with a color or plastron set on, and so deeply pointed in front that it gives the effect of a vest.” (243)

In figure 3, note how the bodices on the purple and blue gowns appear to be full jackets – these are coat-basques. The green gown has a ruched plastron set into its basque, and a similarly pointed, vest-like example can be seen in figure 4, a Jacques Doucet dress in the Met’s collection.

Godey’s Magazine describes indoor jackets in the basque cut in its December 1880 column “On Fashions for December”:

“Very pretty indoor jackets are made in the casaquin style, molding the waist and coming down low over the hips. The front is trimmed from the neck down to the waist line with a lace quilting.” (588)

These long-waisted paneled bodices were given several names, including basque, cuirass, and casaquin. The latter comes from the Louis Seize revival style and refers to the eighteenth-century casaquin jacket, similar to a caraco; it was often paired with draped fabric ‘panniers’ at the hips. Even the shorter styles of basque bodice (Fig. 5) still extended beyond the waist without a seam. This enabled the creation of a longer and more fitted torso silhouette.

Various shades of purple became the summer color of 1880, although ­­­­Peterson’s Magazine did not believe the color was appropriate for everyone. The April issue said:

“Of the new color heliotrope is very fashionable; but it is not becoming to many people, as it is of a pinkish purple; but many of the lavenders and lilacs are eminently becoming.” (328)

An at-home gown in a remarkably unfaded heliotrope purple appears in figure 6. Harper’s Bazar’s “New York Fashions” column in the April issue said on the color purple:

“Sometimes two colors appear in the dress, especially in the light cream and mastic foulards that are combined with prune, heliotrope or garnet brocades.” (243)

The dark prune-purple and cream gown in figure 7 must have been perfectly on-trend.

Suit with coat-tail basque corsage

Fig. 1 - Artist unknown (American). Suit with coat-tail basque corsage, February 1879. New York Public Library, Frank Leslie's ladies' magazine. v. 44 (Jan-June 1879): 85. Source: Hathitrust


Fig. 2 - Designer unknown (French). Dress, 1880. Silk, cotton. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.55.40.4a, b. Gift of Miss Margaret W. McCutchen, 1955. Source: MMA

Godey's Lady's Book

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown (American). Godey's Lady's Book, December 1880. Fashion plate. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, b17509853. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: MMA Digital Collections


Fig. 4 - Jacques Doucet (French, 1853–1929). Dress, ca. 1880. Silk, cotton. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1984.337a, b. Purchase, Irene Lewisohn and Alice L. Crowley Bequests, 1984. Source: MMA

Evening dress

Fig. 5 - Wexler & Abraham (department store) (American). Evening dress, ca. 1880. Silk. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.654. Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009; Gift of the estate of Miss S. E. White, 1939. Source: MMA

Purple silk and velvet bustle gown

Fig. 6 - Designer unknown (American). Purple silk and velvet bustle gown, ca. 1880. Silk faille and velvet; (bust 36", waist 26" in). Lot: 101, May 8, 2018 - Vintage Clothing & Accessories, Sturbridge, MA. Source: Augusta Auctions

Afternoon dress

Fig. 7 - Designer unknown (American). Afternoon dress, ca. 1880. Silk, abalone. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.967a, b. Brooklyn Museum, 2009; Gift of Judith Applegate, 1975. Source: MMA

The color purple was not the only guiding trend of 1880 – polka-dots featured prominently as well. Harper’s Bazar said in their April 10th, 1880 issue:

“Polka-dotted stuffs are imported this season, and manufacturers design them in quiet colors with a view to replacing plain solid colors… But the polka-dotted patterns appear especially in three spring fabrics, viz.., buting, tamise cloth, and camel’s hair.” (227)

A perfect example of the confluence of both of these fashionable trends is the 1880 gown worn by Madame Bartholomé for her husband Albert Bartholomé’s 1881 painting Dans la serre. The gown (Fig. 8), in white and purple cotton with polka-dots and stripes, has a long basque bodice and a collar reminiscent of the sailor style. The fine, narrow kilted pleats of the skirt were also highly fashionable, their tiny multitudes matching the polka dots and buttons. The painting, done a year later, reproduced the gown faithfully down to the darts in the bodice and the bits of white showing through the pleating. The dressmaker appears to have taken advantage of the striped cotton used for the sleeves and pleated it so that only the purple showed on the outside, and so the white is only visible when the pleats move.

Polka-dots, or spots (or “pois” in French), continued to be all the rage in the June 1880 issue of Godey’s Magazine. In “Chitchat, On Fashions For June,” the editor wrote:

“The fancy for spotted dress goods has rapidly increased as the season has advanced; spots are the rage now, walking dresses are made of bright-colored foulard silk with white spots, and cream and other light colored ones, with spots of red and blue.” (108)

This polka-dot trend was a way to incorporate more colors into an ensemble and to add visual interest to a dress that would otherwise be in large color-blocks (Fig. 10). They could be a single color or multicolored (Fig. 11). Spots were commonly used as an all-over pattern, and sometimes in subtler ways than others: while the gold dots on the blue dress in figure 12 are obvious, there are spots on the white dress at left as well.

Robe de Mme Albert Bartholomé

Fig. 8 - Designer unknown (French). Robe de Mme Albert Bartholomé, 1880. Cotton. Paris: Musée d'Orsay, ODO 1991 1. Gift of the Charles and André Bailly Gallery, 1991. Source: M'O

Dans la serre

Fig. 9 - Albert Bartholomé (French, 1848-1928). Dans la serre, 1881. Oil on canvas; h. 235 x l. 145 cm. Paris: Musée d'Orsay, RF 1990 26. Source: M'O


Fig. 10 - Designer unknown (American). Dress, 1880–83. Cotton, silk. New York: Metropoitan Museum of Art, C.I.38.8.1a, b. Gift of Mrs. Agnes Kremer, 1938. Source: MMA

Revue de la Mode, Gazette de la Famille, dimanche 1 août 1880, 9e année, No. 448

Fig. 11 - A. Chaillot (French). Revue de la Mode, Gazette de la Famille, dimanche 1 août 1880, 9e année, No. 448, August 1880. Fashion plate. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, RP-P-OB-103.625. Source: Rijksmuseum

Journal des Demoiselles

Fig. 12 - Artist unknown (French). Journal des Demoiselles, August 1880. Fashion plate. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, b17509853. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: MMA Digital Collections

In Victor Gabriel Gilbert’s 1880 painting Le marché aux fleurs (Fig. 13), the two central figures are shown wearing stylish examples of spring fashion from the 1880. Both women have on basque bodices – not quite long or stiff enough to be coat-basques – trimmed with ruffles and lace. Their bodices have high necklines with added visual interest from a white fichu and a black hat ribbon, adding contrast in an attractive 1880 style.

Both women are wearing head coverings, which were required for any woman of means to leave the house in the 19th century.  These bonnets or hats were usually adorned with coordinating trimmings like lace, ribbons, and flowers, and could be swapped out for different seasons (Fig. 14). Hats were a key topic of interest in women’s fashion, and they were typically mentioned in a standard column in a fashion publication. In 1880, hats came in a wide variety, but tended to be small-brimmed (Fig. 15). Bonnets sat towards the back of the head without a brim. The elongated bodices, the lace trimmings, and matching bonnets make the two women in the flower market fashionable for the year 1880.

Le marché aux fleurs

Fig. 13 - Victor Gabriel Gilbert (French, 1847–1933). Le marché aux fleurs, 1880. Oil on canvas; 74.3 x 107.3 cm (29.3 x 42.2 in). Private collection. Source: Wikimedia Commons


Fig. 14 - Mme. Mantel (French). Bonnet, ca. 1880. Silk, cotton. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.4198a–c. Brooklyn Museum, 2009; Gift of the Princess Viggo, 1931. Source: MMA

Lady with a Fan

Fig. 15 - Roberto Bompiani (Italian, 1821-1908). Lady with a Fan, ca. 1880. Oil on canvas; 136.2 x 83.2 cm (53 5/8 x 32 ¾ in). Christie's, Lot 48, Sale 10399 (19th Century European & Orientalist Art, London, 15 June 2015). Source: Christie's


In a Café

Fig. 1 - Gustave Caillebotte (French, 1848 - 1894). In a Café, 1880. Oil on canvas. Rouen: Musée des Beaux-Arts, D.946.1. Source: Musée des Beaux-Arts

Henry Davison

Fig. 2 - Louise Breslau (French, 1856–1927). Henry Davison, ca. 1880. Oil on canvas; 87 x 46 cm. Paris: Musée d'Orsay, RF 1977 424. Source: Musée d'Orsay


Fig. 3 - Maker unknown (American). Suit, ca. 1880. Wool, linen. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1991.388a–f. Gift of June Wooden Dudley Bliss, 1991. Source: MMA

L. G. Doran, Montreal, QC, 1880

Fig. 4 - Notman & Sandham (Canadian). L. G. Doran, Montreal, QC, 1880, 1880. Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - albumen process; 15 x 10 cm. Montreal: McCord Museum, II-55363.1. Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.. Source: MMC


Miss J. Ogilvie, Montreal, QC, 1880

Fig. 1 - Notman & Sandham (Canadian). Miss J. Ogilvie, Montreal, QC, 1880, 1880. Silver salts on paper mounted on paper; albumen process; 15 x 10 cm. Montreal: McCord Museum, II-54882.1. Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.. Source: MMC

Fernand Halphen enfant

Fig. 2 - Auguste Renoir (French, 1841–1919). Fernand Halphen enfant, 1880. Oil on canvas. Paris: Musée d'Orsay, RF 1995 12. Source: Musée d'Orsay

Der Bazar

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown (German). Der Bazar, October 1880. Fashion plate. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, b17520939. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: MMA Digital Collections


Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1880

Europe 1884. Source: Omniatlas

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

Fashion Plate Collections (digitized)
NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 101. Philadelphia, 1880. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.57766453.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 13. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1880. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1880.
La Moda elegante ilustrada : periódico de las familias. Vol. 39. Madrid, 1880. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101079823769.
La Mode illustrée: journal de la famille. starts with 208-0023-002.jpg. Paris: Firmin-Didot frères, fils et cie, 1880. http://digital.bunka.ac.jp/kichosho/file/No.208/.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 77–78. C.J. Peterson, 1880. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.32000000715963.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 77–78. C.J. Peterson, 1880. https://books.google.com/books?id=dHZFAQAAMAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 77–78. C.J. Peterson, 1880. https://books.google.com/books?id=77w6AQAAMAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 77–78. C.J. Peterson, 1880. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101041479179.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
[Young, John H]. Our Deportment; or, The Manners, Conduct, and Dress of the Most Refined Society, Including Forms of Letters, Invitations, Etc., Etc., Also, Valuable Suggestions on Home Culture and Training. Comp. from the Latest Reliable Authorities... Detroit, Mich.: F. B. Dickerson & co., 1882. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921277.
Alq, Louise Alquié de Rieusseyroux. [Le Nouveau Savoir-Vivre Universel]. Paris: Bureaux des causeries familières, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008681992.
Andrews, Wesley R. The American Code of Manners: A Study of the Usages, Laws and Observances Which Govern Intercourse in the Best Social Circles ... New York: Andrews, 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007696346.
Armstrong, Mary Frances Morgan. On Habits and Manners. Hampton, Va.: Normal School Press, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/102114189.
Aster, Jane. The Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s Etiquette Book of the Best Society. Information and Instruction for Those about Entering, and Those Who Desire to Become Educated and Polished in General Society ... New York: G. W. Carleton & co.; [etc., etc.], 1882. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007678006.
Aster, Jane., and Cairns Collection of American Women Writers. Sensible Etiquette and Good Manners of the Best Society ... to Which Is Added The Art of Writing. Carleton’s Household Library. New York: G.W. Carleton, 1882. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777127.
Carroll, George D., and Dempsey & Carroll. The Art of Dinner Giving and Usages of Polite Society. Art of Dinner Giving. New York: Dempsey & Carroll, 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100173294.
Cleveland, Rose Elizabeth. The Social Mirror: A Complete Treatise on the Laws, Rules and Usages That Govern Our Most Refined Homes and Social Circles. St. Louis, Mo.: L.W. Dickerson, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100557974.
Hall, Florence Howe. Social Customs. Boston: Estes and Lauriat, 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001397017.
Hall, Florence Howe. The Correct Thing in Good Society. Boston: Estes and Lauriat, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777094.
Hardy, E. J. "Manners Makyth Man. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100557966.
Harland, Marion. House and Home: A Complete Housewife’s Guide. Philadelphia, Pa.: J. H. Moore & co., 1889. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000653799.
Houghton, Walter R. Rules of Etiquette and Home Culture: Or What to Do and How to Do It. Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1886. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011595282.
Johnson, Sophia Orne. The New York Fashion Bazar Book of Etiquette. New York: G. Munro, 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011223773.
Keim, De B. Randolph. Hand-Book of Official and Social Etiquette and Public Ceremonials at Washington. A Manual of Rules, Precedents, and Forms in Vogue in Official and Social Life at the Seat of Government of the United States, for the Guidance and Information of Officials, Diplomats, Strangers, and Residents. Also a Guide for Diplomatic and Consular Representatives of the United States in Foreign Countries. Washington, 1889. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000195002.
Lavin, Eliza M., and Cairns Collection of American Women Writers. Good Manners. Metropolitan Series ;[v. 1]. New York: Butterick Publishing Company, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777096.
Lindau, Carl. Der Beste Ton. Regeln Des Anstandes, Und Anleitung, Durch Ein Anständiges Und Gesittetes Benehmen Sich Im Gesellschaftlichen Leben Angenehm Und Beliebt Zu Machen. Ein Sitten- Und Höflichkeitsspiegel Für Junge Leute. Erfurt: F. Bartholomäus, 1882. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921301.
Loewy, Benno. The Manners of the Aristocracy. Ward and Lock’s Useful Handbooks. London: Ward, Lock, Warwick House, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100770760.
Longstreet, Abby Buchanan. Social Etiquette of New York ... New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100330658.
Lounger in society. The Glass of Fashion: A Universal Handbook of Social Etiquette and Home Culture for Ladies and Gentlemen: With Copious and Practical Hints upon the Manners and Ceremonies of Every Relation in Life ... The Secret of Success Series ;6. London: J. Hogg, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/101852847.
Marbury, Elisabeth. Manners; a Handbook of Social Customs ... Chicago: Westminster, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007957951.
McCabe, James D. The National Encyclopaedia of Business and Social Forms, Embracing the Laws of Etiquette and Good Society, and Containing Plain and Simple Instructions in the Art of Appearing to the Best Avantage on All Occasions: How to Dress Well and Tastefully: With Rules for Courtship, Marriage, Etc. ... Cincinnati, O.: Forshee & McMakin, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921269.
Peters, Charles. The Girl’s Own Indoor Book: Containing Practical Help to Girls on All Matters Relating to Their Material Comfort and Moral Well-Being. London: Religious Tract Society, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009357566.
Ransone, L J ]. “Good Form” in England. New York: D. Appleton and company, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011714429.
Rayne, M. L. Gems of Deportment and Hints of Etiquette: The Ceremonials of Good Society, Including Valuable Moral, Mental, and Physical Knowledge, Original and Compiled from the Best Authorities, with Suggestions on All Matters Pertaining to the Social Code. A Manual of Instruction for the Home. Detroit etc.: Tyler, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012294173.
Reed, Isaac N., E. H. Ruddock, and George P. Wood. The Ladies’ Manual: A Guide to Woman in Health and Sickness, from Youth to Advanced Age: Containing Also a Treatise on Marriage and Home Culture, How to Become Beautiful, Rules of Deportment, Dress, and Social Forms, Etc., Etc., Etc. Chicago: I. N. Reed, 1883. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008996237.
Ruth, John A. Decorum: A Practical Treatise on Etiquette and Dress of the Best American Society. New York ; and Cincinnati: Union Pub. House, 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100773571.
Saint-Mars, Gabrielle Anne Cisterne de Courtiras. Comment on Fait Son Chemin Dans Le Monde Code Du Savoir-Vivre. Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100454824.
Sherwood, M. E. W. Manners and Social Usages. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1884. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001390918.
Sherwood, M. E. W. Manners and Social Usages. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005824625.
Smiley, James B. Modern Manners and Social Forms ... Chicago, Ill.: James B. Smiley, 1889. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100837528.
Stevens, Frances. The Usages of the Best Society. A Complete Manual of Social Etiquette. New York: A.L. Burt, 1884. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/101852984.
Thornwell, Emily. The Lady’s Guide to Complete Etiquette in Manners, Dress, and Conversation, in the Family, in Company, at the Pianoforte, the Table, in the Street, and in Gentlemen’s Society: Also a Useful Instructor in Letter Writing, Toilet Preparations, Fancy Needlework, Millinery, Dressmaking, Care of Wardrobe, the Hair, Teeth, Hands, Lips, Complexion, Etc. Chicago: Belford, Clarke & Co., 1884. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100866716.
White, Lydia E. Success in Society: A Manual of Good Manners, Social Etiquette, Rules of Behavior at Home and Abroad, on the Street, at Public Gatherings, Calls, Conversation, Etc. Boston: James H. Earle, 1889. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777092.
Young, John H. Our Deportment, or, The Manners, Conduct and Dress of the Most Refined Society: Including Forms for Letters, Invitations, Etc., Etc.: Also Valuable Suggestions on Home Culture and Training. Manners, Conduct and Dress of the Most Refined Society. Detroit, Mich.: F.B. Dickerson, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006151580.
The Manners That Win. Compiled from the Latest Authorities. Minneapolis: Buckeye Pub. Co., 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921270.
Modern Etiquette in Public and Private; Including Society at Large, the Etiquette of Weddings, the Ball-Room, the Dinner-Table, the Toilet, &c, &c. London, New York: Frederick Warne and Co., 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007701537.
Good Behavior ... Brattleboro’, Vt., San Francisco, Calif.: Cheney & Clapp; I.N. Choynski, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006510995.
Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. “Chronology,” n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
Vintage Fashion Guild. “Fashion Timeline: 1880 To 1890,” n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1880-to-1890/.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “History of Fashion 1840 - 1900,” July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion,” January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
History of Fashion and Dress. “Victorian Era: First Bustle and Natural Form (1870-1883),” n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/firstbustle.html.
History of Fashion and Dress. “Victorian Era: Second Bustle Period and Aesthetic Dress (1883-1890),” n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/secondbustle.html.
Amnéus, Cynthia. A Separate Sphere: Dressmakers in Cincinnati’s Golden Age, 1877-1922. Costume Society of America Series. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/907017627.
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Burnham, Helen. “Fashion and the Representation of Modernity: Studies in the Late Work of Édouard Manet (1832-1883).” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/226381287.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Flamant-Paparatti, Danielle. Bien Pensantes, Cocodettes et Bas Bleus : La Femme Bourgeoise à Travers La Presse Féminine et Familiale (1873-1887). Paris: Denoël, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/906468967.
Font, Lourdes M. “International Couture: The Opportunities and Challenges of Expansion, 1880–1920.” Business History 54, no. 1 (February 1, 2012): 30–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2011.626977.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Garb, Tamar. “Painting the ‘Parisienne’: James Tissot and the Making of the Modern Woman.” In Seductive Surfaces: The Art of Tissot, edited by Katharine Jordan Lochnan, 95–120. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/902215198.
Garvey, Ellen Gruber. The Adman in the Parlor : Magazines and the Gendering of Consumer Culture, 1880s to 1910s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300413491.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hecklinger, Charles [from old catalog. The Dress and Cloak Cutter. Burlington, Vt., 1881. http://archive.org/details/dresscloakcutter00heck.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
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Pocket Museum. “1880s Outerwear,” 1880s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1880s-outerwear/.
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