OVERVIEW

1864 womenswear featured dresses adorned and trimmed lavishly with ruffles, bows, and lace, among many other luxurious fabrics.

Womenswear

In the fashion column of The Lady’s Friend, the editor speaks to the spirit of the clothing in 1864:

“Two years ago the fashions were borrowed from the taste of the eighteenth century, and particularly the Pompadour style, and now they are borrowed from the more scanty toilettes of Louis XVI reign.” (246)

This meant increased ornamentation, more obvious with evening wear, in the form of “trimmings (ruching, velvet appliqué, passementerie, lace)” which “seem to have taken up the slack where tiers and double skirts once reigned” (Rennolds Milbank 26). Another common trend for the evening are “the open wide neckline [that] was practically universal” (26). This can be seen on Emile Pingat’s ball gown (Fig. 1) where the neckline is so wide that it is nearly an off-the shoulder one. Though the black lace trimming at the hem of the skirt is simple, the intricacies of the gown lie elsewhere, such as on the bodice and on the ornamentation of the skirt that also includes fringe.

Though the volume of skirts was most definitely retained, it is more so in the back than evenly distributed all over, making it so that the front is a bit more flat.

Ball gown

Fig. 1 - Emile Pingat (French). Ball gown, 1864. Silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.69.33.12a–c. Gift of Mary Pierrepont Beckwith, 1969. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Le Follet

Fig. 2 - Artist unknown. Le Follet, Tuesday, November 1, 1864. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Public Library. Source: Los Angeles Public Library

Le Follet

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown. Le Follet, Thursday, December 1, 1864. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Public Library. Source: Los Angeles Public Library

Mme George Webber, Montréal, QC, 1864

Fig. 4 - William Notman (Scottish-Canadian, 1826-1891). Mme George Webber, Montréal, QC, 1864, 1864. Photograph; 8 x 5 cm. Montreal: Musée McCord, I-13492.1. Purchase of Associated Screen News Ltd.. Source: Musée McCord

Mme De St. Ours, Montréal, QC, 1864

Fig. 5 - William Notman (Scottish-Canadian, 1826-1891). Mme De St. Ours, Montréal, QC, 1864, 1864. Photograph; 8.5 x 5.6 cm. Montreal: Musée McCord, I-10592.1. Purchase of Associated Screen News Ltd.. Source: Musée McCord

Dresses this year have a multitude of flowers, bows, lace, flounces, and frills (Figs. 2-3). Tassels are another popular trimming that adorn even the simplest of day dresses (Figs. 4-5) as captured by a number of photographs of women of respectable social status, but are nowhere near royalty, and also on fashion plates (Fig. 6).

In a May 1864 column of The Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine, the editor speaks to the rise of passementerie (or heavy braid) as a form of ornamentation:

“Passementerie with jet was never more worn than now. It is placed upon everything. If an elegant and at the same time rich body is required, passementerie mixed with jet must not only be put round the edge of it, but round the pockets, and even the seams at the back. This trimming is rather heavy, but quite in fashion.” (304)

Le Moniteur de la Mode

Fig. 6 - Artist unknown. Le Moniteur de la Mode, Sunday, May 1, 1864. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Public Library. Source: Los Angeles Public Library

Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine

Fig. 7 - Artist unknown. Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine, Tuesday, March 1, 1864. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Public Library. Source: Los Angeles Public Library

Le Follet

Fig. 8 - Artist unknown. Le Follet, Friday, January 1, 1864. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Public Library. Source: Los Angeles Public Library

This kind of trimming along with more simple rope braiding can be seen on many of the day dresses (Fig. 7) and cloaks illustrated in fashion plates and can be rendered more interesting with shapes like the zigzag edge highlighted by the trim on the black cloak (Fig. 8). The fashionable crinolined silhouette popular in 1864 is very evident in the beach scene depicted by  Eugène Boudin (Fig. 9). A few of the dresses show the trend of raising the overskirt with a hidden system of cords to reveal a complementary underskirt, as does a surviving dress in the Met’s collection (Fig. 10).

The Beach at Villerville

Fig. 9 - Eugène Boudin (French, 1824 - 1898). The Beach at Villerville, 1864. Oil on canvas; 45.7 x 76.3 cm. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1963.10.4. Source: National Gallery of Art

Dress

Fig. 10 - Designer unknown (French). Dress, 1864. Silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.40.183.2. Gift of Mrs. Dorothy H. Johnston, 1940. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Portrait of Miss L. L.

Fig. 11 - James Tissot (French, 1836-1902). Portrait of Miss L. L., February 1864. Oil on canvas; 124 x 99.5 cm. Paris: Musée d'Orsay, RF 2698. Source: Musée d'Orsay

Women could also be extremely fashionable in their clothing without being excessive, as evidenced by James Tissot’s Portrait of Miss L. L. (Fig. 11). Though her ensemble is simple, the vibrant punch of color of her bolero, a garment gaining popularity at the time, combined with its playful pompoms make it so she is an undeniably well-dressed woman (De Young 234).

The Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine further describes the appropriate trimmings of 1864, particularly bows:

“Another style of trimming very much approved of is that of a bow or rosette upon each breadth of the skirt from which depend three long ends fixed to it. The bows may be either in ribbon or velvet, the ends more or less long.” (119)

It is clear from Franz Xaver Winterhalter’s Portrait of Princess Sophia Radzivil (Fig. 12) that this trend extends to different areas of Europe as well, such as Germany. In addition to the ruffled ribbon trimmings at the neckline of the gown, there are also numerous dusty lilac ribbon bows with lengthy ends that adorn the center front of the bodice and the skirt. The pointed bodice and the fact that more of the skirt’s fullness is directed towards the back of the gown make it clear that the Princess is dressed in the most current fashions of her time.

Portrait of Princess Sophia Radzivil

Fig. 12 - Franz Xaver Winterhalter (German, 1805-1873). Portrait of Princess Sophia Radzivil, 1864. Oil on canvas; 126 x 94 cm. Saint Petersburg: Hermitage Museum. Source: Wikiart

Menswear

[To come…]

Men In Suits, And Woman In Ballgown, 1860s

Fig. 1 - S. A.. Men In Suits, And Woman In Ballgown, 1860s, 1864. Drawing; 18 x 11 cm. New York: The New York Public Library Digital Collections. Source: The New York Public Library Digital Collections

Dr. Leclenché

Fig. 2 - Claude Monet (French, 1840–1926). Dr. Leclenché, 1864. Oil on canvas; 45.7 x 32.4 cm. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 51.32. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Edwin C. Vogel, 1951. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Andrew A. MacDonald, politicien, Montréal, QC, 1864

Fig. 3 - William Notman (Scottish-Canadian, 1826-1891). Andrew A. MacDonald, politicien, Montréal, QC, 1864, 1864. Photograph; 8 x 5 cm. Montreal: Musée McCord, I-13484.1. Source: Musée McCord

Colonel John Hamilton Gray, Montréal, QC, 1864

Fig. 4 - William Notman (Scottish-Canadian, 1826-1891). Colonel John Hamilton Gray, Montréal, QC, 1864, 1864. Photograph; 12 x 10 cm. Montreal: Musée McCord, I-13482. Source: Musée McCord

Suit

Fig. 5 - Designer unknown (American). Suit, 1864. Wool, silk, leather, and cotton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1979.475.1a–f. Purchase, Friends of The Costume Institute Gifts, 1979. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

CHILDREN’S WEAR

Magasin des Demoiselles

Fig. 1 - Artist unknown. Magasin des Demoiselles, Friday, April 1, 1864. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Public Library. Source: Los Angeles Public Library

Dress

Fig. 2 - Designer unknown (American). Dress, 1864. Cotton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.64.61.2. Gift of Mrs. Frank O. Bowman, 1964. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Undershirt

Fig. 3 - Designer unknown (American). Undershirt, 1864. Linen. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.3008. Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009; Gift of Louise G. Zabriskie, 1932. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Girl's Coat, Front And Back, 1860s

Fig. 4 - Artist unknown. Girl's Coat, Front And Back, 1860s, 1864. Drawing; 22 x 13 cm (drawing). New York: The New York Public Library Digital Collections. Source: The New York Public Library Digital Collections

Children's Fashions for August

Fig. 5 - Artist unknown. Children's Fashions for August, August 1864. Fashion plate; 14 x 22 cm. New York: The New York Public Library Digital Collections. Source: The New York Public Library Digital Collections

References:

Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1864
Rulers:

Europe 1867. Source: Omniatlas

Events:
  • 1861-65 – American Civil War
    • “The United States Civil War, a military conflict between the Union and the Confederacy, begins in April 1861 when Charleston’s Fort Sumter is fired upon. The conflict lasts four years, takes more than 600,000 lives, and emancipates 4 million enslaved people.” (The MET)
  • “Charles Frederick Worth is listed in the directory of commerce as an official purveyor to Empress Eugénie.” (Tétart-Vittu 273)
  • October 31: “Nevada is admitted as the 36th U.S. state.”
  • November 8: “Abraham Lincoln is reelected, in an overwhelming victory over George B. McClellan.”

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

Fashion Plate Collections (Digitized)
NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1864. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2085198.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 23–24. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1864. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074624662.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1864. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2982235.
Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 10, 1864. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.c0000044222.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 68–69. Philadelphia, 1864. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015020057538.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 68–69. Philadelphia, 1864. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015020057538.
Journal des demoiselles. Vol. 32. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1864. https://books.google.com/books?vid=HARVARD:HN73IW.
La Mode illustrée: journal de la famille. Paris: Firmin-Didot frère, fils et cie, 1864. http://books.google.com/books?id=7zEsY52d81gC.
La Sylphide : journal de modes, de littérature, de théâtres et de musique, 1864. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb34444962f/date1864.
Le Follet. London: E. Minister & Son, 1864. http://books.google.com/books?id=dh0GAAAAQAAJ.
Le Journal des coiffeurs : publication des coiffeurs réunis. Paris: [s.n.], 1864. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5407003c.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 3. Paris: Goubaud, 1864. http://books.google.com/books?id=INRBAAAAcAAJ.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 1-2. Paris: Goubaud, 1864. https://books.google.com/books?id=INRBAAAAcAAJ.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 3-4. Paris: Goubaud, 1864. https://books.google.com/books?id=NtRBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 1. Paris: Aubert, 1864. http://books.google.com/books?id=sdNBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 2. Paris: Aubert, 1864. https://books.google.com/books?id=y9NBAAAAcAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 45–46. C.J. Peterson, 1864. http://books.google.com/books?id=8aBHAAAAYAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 45–46. C.J. Peterson, 1864. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/njp.32101076519956.
The Lady’s Friend. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Deacon & Peterson, 1864. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951000753433o.
Victoria : illustrirte Muster- und Moden-Zeitung. Berlin: Victoria-Verl., 1864. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Abell, L. G. Woman in Her Various Relations: Containing Practical Rules for American Females. New York: Hubbard & Burgess, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100192096.
Aster, Jane. The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances, Nice Points of Taste and Good Manners, and the Art of Making One’s-Self Agreeable. The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments, Remarks on the History and Changes of Fashion, and the Differences of English and Continental Etiquette. New York: Carleton, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676290.
Cox, Sydney. Friendly Counsel for Girls, or, Words in Season. Words in Season. New York: G. W. Carlton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011538429.
D., and D. [from old catalog] C. The Matter of Manner. Sudbury: H. S. Pratt, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100138761.
Fox, George Patrick. [from old catalog]. Fashion. New York, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009597581.
France. Cérémonial. Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008404138.
Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell. Manners: Or, Happy Homes and Good Society All the Year Round. Boston: J. E. Tilton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011563026.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette: And Manual of Politeness: A Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society: Containing Full Directions for Correct Manners, Dress, Deportment, and Conversation ... and Also Useful Receipts for the Complexion, Hair, and with Hints and Directions for the Care of the Wardrobe ... Boston: G. W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777142.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness ; a Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society. Boston: G.W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100685756.
Leslie, Eliza. The Ladies’ Guide to True Politeness and Perfect Manners: Or, Miss Leslie’s Behaviour Book, a Guide and Manual for Ladies ... Philadelphia: B. Peterson, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100165382.
Merten, Heinrich. Modernes Komplimentirbuch; Oder, Die Quintessenz Des Anstades Und Der Eleganz. Ein Unentbehrlicher Rathgeber Für Personen Beiderlei Geschlechts. Reutlingen: Fleischauer und Spohn, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008679336.
Routledge’s Manual of Etiquette. London ; New York: Routledge, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007672052.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances. New York: Rudd & Carleton, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011159230.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen...The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments. New York: Carleton, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676292.
Menswear Periodicals (Digitized)

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

Online
“Bloomsbury Fashion Central - Berg Fashion Library,” n.d. https://www.bloomsburyfashioncentral.com/products/berg-fashion-library.
Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
“Chronology.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
“Costume Institute Fashion Plates.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/p15324coll12.
“Der Bazar - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2083461.
“Fashion Timeline: 1860 To 1870.” Vintage Fashion Guild, n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1860-to-1870/.
“Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion.” Accessed May 7, 2018. https://books.google.com/books?id=tCIGAAAAQAAJ&source=gbs_similarbooks.
“Hemeroteca Digital. Biblioteca Nacional de España.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://hemerotecadigital.bne.es/results.vm?a=4782809&t=%2Bcreation&l=600&l=700&s=0&y=1868&lang=en.
“History of Fashion 1840 - 1900.” Victoria and Albert Museum, July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
Cook, Michael. “Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition and History,” January 1, 2003. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1868.
“Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion.” Victoria and Albert Museum, January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
“Victoria - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
“Victorian Era: The Crinoline Period (1850-1869).” History of Fashion and Dress, n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/belleepoque.html.
Books/Articles
Acton, William R. Acton’s Improved System of Actual Measurement. [New York, De Vries & Wood, printers], 1867. http://archive.org/details/actonsimprovedsy00acto.
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, ed. A Visual History of Costume. London : Batsford ; New York: Drama Book Publishers, 1983.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Boucher, François. Paris, Miroir de La Mode: Crinolines et Calèches, 1855-1867. Paris: Éditions Rombaldi, 1959. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/438804700.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brockaway, W. [from old catalog. The Great Balance-Measure System, for Cutting Coats, Vests, Pants, Cloaks, and Shirts. New York, Baker & Godwin, printers, 1864. http://archive.org/details/greatbalancemeas01broc.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Brundage, William W. [from old catalog. A Complete System of Cutting. [New York, Printed by A. Marrer], 1867. http://archive.org/details/completesystemof00brun.
Cole, Luman E. [from old catalog. The Tailors’ Guide: Containing Systems of Draughting Frock and Sack Coats, Pants, Vests and Shirts, with Valuable Improvements, Warranted Superior to Anything Ever Offered to the Trade. Milwaukee, Stan & son, book and job printers, 1868. http://archive.org/details/tailorsguidecont00cole.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
De Young, Justine. “‘Housewife or Harlot’: Art, Fashion & Morality in the Paris Salon of 1868.” In Cultures of Femininity in Modern Fashion, edited by Ilya Parkins and Elizabeth M. Sheehan, 124–47. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire Press, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/823388661.
De Young, Justine. “Fashion and the Press.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 233–43. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Dolan, Therese. “The Empress’s New Clothes: Fashion and Politics in Second Empire France.” Woman’s Art Journal, Spring 1994, 22–28. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1358491.
Dolan, Therese. “Skirting the Issue: Manet’s Portrait of Baudelaire’s Mistress, Reclining.” The Art Bulletin 79, no. 4 (December 1997). http://www.jstor.org/stable/3046278.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Glencross, William [from old catalog. Manual; New York, W. Glencross, 1866. http://archive.org/details/manual00glen.
Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hambourg, Maria Morris. Nadar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851034965.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
Lambert, Miles. Fashion in Photographs 1860-1880. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300306371.
Lansdell, Avril. Fashion à La Carte, 1860-1900: A Study of Fashion through Cartes-de-Visite. History in Camera. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/436041340.
Leisch, Juanita. Who Wore What?: Women’s Wear, 1861-1865. Gettysburg: Thomas Publications, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33070937.
MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Grace Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Samuel Sachs. Whistler, Women, & Fashion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/757386204.
Maeder, Edward, and Evelyn Ackerman, eds. Dressed for the Country, 1860-1900: Exhibition. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/562356615.
Matyjaszkiewicz, Krystyna. “Costume in Tissot’s Pictures.” In James Tissot, 64–77. Oxford: Phaidon, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630471252.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “Photography, Fashion, and the Cult of Appearances.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 197–207. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “The Carte de Visite and Portrait Painting during the Second Empire.” In A.A.E. Disdéri and the Carte de Visite Portrait Photograph, 137–203. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/755288192.
Nead, Lynda. “The Layering of Pleasure: Women, Fashionable Dress and Visual Culture in the Mid-Nineteenth Century.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 35, no. 5 (2013): 489–509.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. 80 Godey’s Full-Color Fashion Plates, 1838-1880. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/868271404.
Phyliky, Leonard. The Tailor; New System of Drafting Direct from the Measurement Taken with a Tape Measure, without Any Instrument, for All the Various Forms of the Human Body. New York: T. Holman, 1867. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011213188.
Piazza, Arianna, ed. Fashion 150: 150 Years, 150 Designers. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/961459695.
Ribeiro, Aileen. “The Art of Dress: Fashion in Renoir’s La Loge.” In Renoir at the Theatre: Looking at La Loge, edited by Ernst Vegelin van Claerbergen and Barnaby Wright, 45–63. London: The Courtauld Gallery, 2008. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/938162816.
Roskill, Mark W. “Early Impressionism and the Fashion Print.” The Burlington Magazine 112, no. 807 (June 1970): 390–95. http://www.jstor.org/stable/876343.
Schirrmeister, Anne. “La Dernière Mode: Berthe Morisot and Costume.” In Perspectives on Morisot, edited by T. J. Edelstein, 103–15. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1990. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/463695207.
Severa, Joan L. Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/552147475.
Shep, R. L., and Mark Campbell, eds. Civil War Ladies: Fashions and Needle-Arts of the Early 1860s. Mendocino: R.L. Shep, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794531398.
Simon, Marie. Fashion in Art: The Second Empire and Impressionism. London: Zwemmer, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33973359.
Simon, Marie, and Vivienne Westwood. Fashion in Art: The Second Empire and Impressionism. London : New York: Zwemmer ; distributed in the USA and Canada by Antique Collector’s Club, 1995.
Pinterest