OVERVIEW

Women’s fashion was ornate above all else in 1855, with the hoop skirt reigning prominently in conjunction with brightly colored silks and satins accessorized with all varieties of tasteful trimmings.

Womenswear

A fashion article from Graham’s Magazine ponders whether the fashions of the year 1855 have evolved as dramatically as other magazines, such as the Moniteur de la mode, might like readers to believe, asking:

“Have the fashions changed? That is the question. Have they had time in Paris, in the midst of the grand military reviews and preparations – in the midst of changes in helmets and uniforms – to issue orders and proclamations concerning the fashions, and to compose and conceive new bonnets and new cloaks? Fortunately, the Parisians have an Empress as well as an Emperor, and she rules over the fashions, or the graces, as one of her subjects would say, not only with the scepter of imperial power, but with the despotic rule of a pretty woman.” (95)

The concept of the “pretty woman” is one of great importance, as reflected in the elaborately feminine fashions of the year. In an 1855 fashion column from Graham’s Magazine, it is explained that:

“Dress this season is most costly, perhaps never was more so; for, in addition to the richness of the materials employed, the quantity and expense of the trimmings, without which a dress cannot be made, render the winter prospects very appalling for the papas’ and husbands’ purses.” (95)

The ornate taste that had been cultivated for womenswear called for nearly every trimming possible to be added to the flounces, sleeves, and basques of garments, from frosted leather fringe to velvet ribbons to embroidery. According to a review of winter fashion from Godey’s Magazine, “evening dresses have the flounces edged with several rows of the narrowest width of black velvet ribbon” (94).

Sleeves were often trimmed to correspond with the flounce decorations, and velvet ribbon was a very popular choice for winter adornments as well as garments. In regards to the excessive use of ribbons, Godey’s Magazine writes, “Never was there a season when ribbons were more in use for dresses, mantles, even chemisettes, and undersleeves” (288). The magazine also declares that “Any young, or for that matter, elderly lady, so disposed, may easily ruin herself in ribbons; never were they so much in demand” (191).

Expensive furs were used to trim garments worn in the colder months, both as an accessory to border velvet cloaks as well as to create striped dimension on dresses, like Godey’s Magazine describes: “The fur is cut into wide strips and placed round the skirt – each strip gradually decreasing in width as it reaches the waist” (95). Dark furs, such as beaver, as opposed to the now antiquated ermine, were mainly used, as they were considered more attractive.

As for street dresses during the colder months, brightly colored tartan plaid was fashionable as shown by figure 1, either comprising the entire dress or used as a border for plain-colored frocks. Wide stripes were also a popular pattern for day dresses, as shown in figure 2. However, the tartan plaid day dresses were the most boldly colored garments for the season, as a majority of fashion plates showcased dresses that were shades of deep green, maroon, brown, black, and gray.

Afternoon dress

Fig. 1 - Designer unknown (American). Afternoon dress, ca. 1855. Silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.864. Gift of Mae Schenck, 1963. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Magasin des demoiselles

Fig. 2 - Artist unknown (French). Magasin des demoiselles, vol. 37, no. 47 (February 1, 1855). Los Angeles: Los Angeles Public Library, rbc4359. Source: Los Angeles Public Library

Mrs. Charles Morey (Anna Chadbourne, later Mrs. David E. Hughes)

Fig. 3 - George Peter Alexander Healy (American, 1813-1894). Mrs. Charles Morey (Anna Chadbourne, later Mrs. David E. Hughes), 1855. Oil on canvas; 156.84 x 113.98 cm (61 3/4 x 44 7/8 in). Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 21.2232. Ellen Kelleran Gardner Fund. Source: Museum of Fine Arts

Portrait of Woman and Child

Fig. 4 - Jean-Baptiste Frénet (French, 1814 - 1889). Portrait of Woman and Child, 1855. Photography, salted paper print; 23.6 x 17.8 cm (9 5/16 x 7 in). Washington DC: National Gallery of Art, 2007.92.4.1. Robert B. and Joyce Menschel Fund and The Sarah and William L Walton Fund. Source: National Gallery of Art

Les Modes Parisiennes Fashion Plate

Fig. 5 - Artist unknown (French). Les Modes Parisiennes Fashion Plate, Vol. 37, no. 50 (Thursday, March 1, 1855). Los Angeles: Los Angeles Public Library, rbc4362. Source: Los Angeles Public Library

Woman's Evening dress: Bodice and Skirt

Fig. 6 - Designer unknown (French). Woman's Evening dress: Bodice and Skirt, ca. 1850-1855. Jacquard-woven silk moiré taffeta. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1926-58-1. Gift of Alice McFadden Eyre, 1926. Source: Philadelphia Museum of Art

A

s the weather grew more favorable, fabrics of both lighter weight and color rose into fashion, and dresses of summer silks and delicate, yet eye-catching, colors were popular, as shown in the yellow gown in figure 3. As explained by the Moniteur de la mode, “the furred cloak is laid aside for the scarf or small cape of embroidered velvet,” often decorated with a deep guipure (49). In the warmer weather, women also carried decorated parasols to protect themselves from the sun in order to keep their skin fashionably pale. According to Peterson’s Magazine:

“For the more elegant kinds used for the carriage, bows and ends of ribbon supply the place of tassels. The large parasols of chintz muslin with ample flounces of the same are indispensable for the country. Some fashionable ladies carry parasols made of foulard chintz patterns, and having a border edged with a very narrow fringe. These are very graceful and truly elegant.” (444)

Besides the variance in material used, as well as accompanying accessories such as parasols and bonnets, which were comprised of varying types of straw, tulle, blonde, ribbon, and flowers for the spring and summer, silhouettes for dresses in all seasons remained relatively similar. For day dresses, puffed sleeves that came to a closure at the wrist were the general silhouette, though some puffed sleeves were slashed to reveal the undersleeves, which were often embroidered. Day dresses generally had higher neckline, showcasing buttons from the waist to the throat, which can be seen in figure 4.

As for the general silhouette, skirts were growing more circular again, causing Graham’s Magazine to write, “Hoops appear to come into fashion again – for some of the skirts of the dresses in Paris have a very thin whalebone inserted in the hem” (96). Whalebone hems or not, a very large crinoline was popular. For nearly all seasons throughout the year, mantles, shawls, and scarves were tastefully comprised of varying types of white or black lace. As Harper’s Magazine states, “For mantillas, laces are extremely fashionable… they appear to admirable advantage when worn over appropriate colors – such, for instance, as lavender or pea green” (432). Judging from the above overview of the fashion for the year, it appears evident that “immense use of crinoline” was popular to make skirts very full, as explained by Godey’s Magazine (192). Numerous flounces of both the actual skirt and the underskirt were fashionable as well, adding even more volume to a lady’s dress, exemplified in figure 5.

For evening gowns, short pagoda sleeves or short puffed sleeves closed at the upper arm with a band of lace or ribbon. Waists generally ended in a point at the center front of the gown, as shown in figure 6. Ball gowns for those partaking in dancing were made of light weight luxurious silks and satins, regardless of the weather so as to be breathable for the wearer. Necklines typically skimmed the shoulders and were cut in a V-shape, as shown in figures 7 and 8.

Queen Victoria

Fig. 7 - Franz Xaver Winterhalter (German, 1805-73). Queen Victoria, 1855. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour; 38.3 x 26.7 cm (15.08 x 10.5 in). London: Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 913344. Source: Royal Collection Trust

Mme. Clara M. Brinkerhoff

Fig. 8 - Photographer unknown (American). Mme. Clara M. Brinkerhoff, ca. 1855-1865. Glass, wet collodion. Washington DC: Library of Congress, LC-BH82- 5309 B. Source: Library of Congress

Portrait of a Lady

Fig. 9 - Ángel María Cortellini (Spanish, 1819-1887). Portrait of a Lady, 1855. Oil on canvas; 226.5 × 141.5 cm (89.17 x 55.7 in). Bilbao: Bilbao Fine Arts Museum. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Thus, it seems evident that Ángel María Cortellini’s Portrait of a Lady, features an indisputably fashionable woman bedecked for a summer ball (Fig. 9). Her vibrant dress is comprised of high quality silk or satin, brightly colored in accordance with the season, and her large skirt as well as the V-cut of her dress prove her silhouette to be in style. The featured lady’s gown ends in a point at the center front waist, a trend previously discussed, and her short puffed sleeves are frilled with lace. The skirt of her gown is not only features the fashionable layering of flounces, but each flounce is decorated with ribbon and trimmed with lace. Therefore, she seems to be the epitome of the fashionable woman ready for a ball in her elegant, though over-the-top gown.

Menswear

[Eugène] Lemaitre

Fig. 1 - Nadar (Gaspard Félix Tournachon) (French, 1820 - 1910). [Eugène] Lemaitre, ca. 1855-1859. Salted paper print; 21.1 × 15.9 cm (8 5/16 × 6 1/4 in). Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 84.XM.436.312. Source: The J. Paul Getty Museum

Gentlemen's attire, Gentlemen's Magazine

Fig. 2 - Artist unknown (British). Gentlemen's attire, Gentlemen's Magazine, September 1855. Los Angeles: Claremont Colleges Digital Library, fpc00634.tif. Source: Claremont Colleges Digital Library

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

Fig. 3 - Daniel John Pound (British, 1842-1877). Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 1855. Stipple engraving; 27.6 x 17.78 cm (10 7/8 in x 7 in). London: National Portrait Gallery, NPG D10866. Given by W.M. Campbell Smyth, 1935. Source: National Portrait Gallery

Man's Vest

Fig. 4 - Designer unknown (British). Man's Vest, ca. 1855. Silk cut and voided velvet on satin. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, M.2007.211.821. Purchased with funds provided by Suzanne A. Saperstein and Michael and Ellen Michelson. Source: Los Angeles County Museum of Art

CHILDREN’S WEAR

Untitled

Fig. 1 - Artist unknown. Untitled, ca. 1850-1855. Daguerreotype; 6.7 x 5.4 cm (2 5/8 x 2 1/8 in). New York: Museum of Modern Art, 72.1974. Gift of Celeste Bartos. Source: Museum of Modern Art

Les Modes Parisiennes: Childrenswear

Fig. 2 - Artist unknown (French). Les Modes Parisiennes: Childrenswear, Vol. 37, no. plate 53 (Thursday, March 1, 1855). Los Angeles: Los Angeles Public Library, rbc4365. Source: Los Angeles Public Library

The Lollipop

Fig. 3 - James Campbell (British, 1828–1893). The Lollipop, 1855. Oil on canvas. London: The Tate Museum. Source: The Tate Museum

Child's dress

Fig. 4 - Designer unknown (American). Child's dress, 1855. Wool and silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.686a, b. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

References:

Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1850-1859
Rulers:

Map of Europe in 1855. Source: Wikimedia

Events:
  • The Exposition Universelle officially opened in Paris.
  • Stamps were no longer taxed in The United Kingdom, allowing newspapers to be more popularly bought and sold, promoting the rise of mass media communication.
  • Henry Bessemer also filed a patent for his Bessemer steel-making process in the United Kingdom, promoting industrial growth.
  • In the United States, violence over slavery breaks out in the struggle known as “Bleeding Kansas.”

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Fashion Periodicals (Digitized)
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 5. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=QcsYAQAAMAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 50. Philadelphia, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=R8dMAAAAMAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 51. Philadelphia, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=K8ZMAAAAMAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 51. Philadelphia, 1855. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015027389413.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 50. Philadelphia, 1855. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015004111251.
Graham’s American Monthly Magazine of Literature, Art, and Fashion. Vol. 47. G.R. Graham, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=L8AgAAAAMAAJ.
Graham’s Magazine. Vol. 39. G.R. Graham, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=R6jPAAAAMAAJ.
Harper’s Magazine. Vol. 11, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=C3cCAAAAIAAJ.
Journal Des Demoiselles. Vol. 23. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1855. http://fig.lib.harvard.edu/fig/?action=read&bib=005380390&sbc=HN4IDU.
La Sylphide (Paris. 1840) - année disponible1855 - Gallica, 1855. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb34444962f/date1855.
Le Journal des coiffeurs (Paris) - année disponible1855 - Gallica, 1855. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb344436197/date1855.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. Paris: Goubaud, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=QHMOAAAAQAAJ.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. Paris: Goubaud, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=O8VBAAAAcAAJ.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. Paris: Goubaud, 1855. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2089865.
Pariser Damenkleider-Magazin : Journal für weibl. Arbeiten. Stuttgart: Erhard, 1855. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2008122.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 27–28. C.J. Peterson, 1855. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/njp.32101076519865.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 27–28. C.J. Peterson, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=iBoAAAAAYAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 27–28. C.J. Peterson, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=7JpHAAAAYAAJ.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Abell, L. G. Woman in Her Various Relations: Containing Practical Rules for American Females, the Best Methods for Dinners and Social Parties, a Chapter for Young Ladies, Mothers, and Invalids, Hints on the Body, Mind, and Character. Fireside Series. New York: William Holdredge, 1851. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005877015.
American gentleman. True Politeness. A Hand-Book of Etiquette for Gentlemen. New York: Leavitt & Allen, 1853. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100866791.
Bascherelle, Louis Nicolas. L’art de Briller En Société et de Se Conduire Dans Toutes Les Circonstances de La Vie. L’instruction Popularisée Par l’illustration. Paris: Maresq, 1851. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008372048.
Cairns Collection of American Women Writers., and Carlton & Phillips. The Book of Manners: A Guide to Social Intercourse. New-York: Carlton & Phillips, 1856. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777093.
Cairns Collection of American Women Writers., and George A. Leavitt & Co. Pocket Book of Good Society. New York: Geo. A. Leavitt, 1850. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777130.
Cham. Nouvelles Lecons de Civilité, Puérile et Honnête. Civilitʹe Puʹerile et Honnête. Paris: Maison Martinet, 1850. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/102217693.
Chapus, Eugène. Manuel de l’homme et de La Femme Comme Il Faut. Bibliothèque Nouvelle. Paris: Librarie Nouvelle, 1855. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011544896.
Conkling, Margaret C. The American Gentleman’s Guide to Politeness and Fashion, or Familiar Letters to His Nephews. New York: Derby & Jackson, 1858. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921285.
Day, Charles William. The American Ladies’ and Gentleman’s Manual of Elegance, Fashion, and True Politeness. Manual of Fashion and Politeness. Auburn New York: James M. Alden, 1850. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011261511.
De Valcourt, Robert. The Illustrated Manners Book: A Manual of Good Behavior and Polite Accomplishments. New York: Leland, Clay, 1855. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011543963.
Eddy, Daniel C. The Young Woman’s Friend, or, The Duties, Trials, Loves, and Hopes of Woman. Boston: Wentworth, 1857. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008688801.
Hervey, George Winfred. The Principles of Courtesy: With Hints and Observations of Manners and Habits. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1852. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011529796.
Hutchinson, E. Ladies’ Indispensable Assistant: Being a Companion for the Sister, Mother, and Wife ...: Here Are the Very Best Directions for the Behavior and Etiquette of Ladies and Gentlemen ...: Also, Safe Directions for the Management of Children ... a Great Variety of Valuable Recipes, Forming a Complete System of Family Medicine ...: To Which Is Added One of the Best Systems of Cookery Ever Published ... New-York: [s.n.], 1852. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100142550.
Leslie, Eliza. The Behaviour Book: A Manual for Ladies / by Miss Leslie. Philadelphia: W. P. Hazard, 1853. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777081.
Leslie, Eliza. Miss Leslie’s Behaviour Book: A Guide and Manual for Ladies as Regards Their Conversation; Manners; Dress; with Full Instructions and Advice in Letter Writing [!]; Receiving Presents; Incorrect Words. Philadelphia: T. B. Peterson and brothers, 1859. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011255083.
Porter, James. The Operative’s Friend, and Defence, or, Hints to Young Ladies Who Are Dependent on Their Own Exertions. Hints to Young Ladies, Who Are Dependent on Their Own Exertions. Boston: C.H. Peirce, 1850. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011529795.
Richards, Cornelia Holroyd Bradley. At Home and Abroad; or, How to Behave. New York: Evans and Brittan, 1853. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011536644.
Smith, Daniel. The Book of Manners: A Guide to Social Intercourse. New York: Carlton & Phillips, 1854. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007958094.
Thornwell, Emily. The Lady’s Guide to Perfect Gentility: In Manners, Dress, and Conversation ... Also a Useful Instructor in Letter Writing ... New York : Cincinnati: Derby & Jackson; H.W. Derby, 1856. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011600527.
Wells, Samuel R., and D. H. Jacques. How to Behave: A Pocket Manual of Republican Etiquette, and Guide to Correct Personal Habits: Embracing an Exposition of the Principles of Good Manners, Useful Hints on the Care of the Person, Eating, Drinking, Exercise, Habits, Dress, Self-Culture, and Behavior at the Home ... with Illustrative Anecdotes, a Chapter on Love and Courtship, and Rules of Order for Debating Societies. Hand-Books for Home Improvement ;No. III. New York: Fowler and Wells, 1856. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676394.
Wise, Daniel. The Young Lady’s Counsellor: Or, Outlines and Illustrations of the Sphere, the Duties and the Dangers of Young Women. New York: Carlton & Porter, 1851. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008621749.
Wise, Daniel. The Young Man’s Counsellor: Or, Sketches and Illustrations of the Duties and Dangers of Young Men. New-York: Carlton & Phillips, 1853. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011538426.
Woodbury, Augustus. Plain Words to Young Men. Concord, N.H.: Edson C. Eastman, 1858. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011538918.
Hand-Books for Home Improvement: Comprising How to Write, How to Behave, How to Talk, How to Do Business ; Complete in One Volume. New York: Fowler and Wells, 1857. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676316.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook of Etiquette for Ladies and Gentlemen. London: J. Hogg & Sons, 1859. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/101738400.
Elegant Arts for Ladies: Comprising ... London: Ward and Lock, 1856. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100244177.

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

Online
“Chronology.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
“Fashion Timeline: 1850 To 1860.” Vintage Fashion Guild, n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1850-to-1860/.
“History of Fashion 1840 - 1900.” Victoria and Albert Museum, July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
“Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion.” Victoria and Albert Museum, January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
“Victorian Era: The Crinoline Period (1850-1869).” History of Fashion and Dress, n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/belleepoque.html.
Books/Articles
Acton, William R. Acton’s Improvements on The Tailor’s Transfer; Philadelphia, King & Baird, printers, 1862. http://archive.org/details/actonsimprovemen00acto.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Boucher, François. Paris, Miroir de La Mode: Crinolines et Calèches, 1855-1867. Paris: Éditions Rombaldi, 1959. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/438804700.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume, Society. Early Victorian Costume 1830-1860; Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the Costume Society, 1969. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/976708381.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
Dilday, E. [from old catalog. E. Dilday’s Plain and Concise Method of Garment Cutting: St. Louis, Mo., Keith, Woods & co., printers, 1856. http://archive.org/details/edildaysplaincon00dild.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Geer, Salomon [from old catalog. Der zuschneider wie er sein soll, oder, Gründliche anweisung zum selbst-unterricht im zuschneiden. New-York, M.W. Siebert, 1854. http://archive.org/details/derzuschneiderwi00geer.
Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
Greve, J. C. D. [from old catalog. Art du tailleur. Cincinnati, J. C. D. Greve, 1855. http://archive.org/details/artdutailleur00grev.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Hunter, A. J. [from old catalog. The Garment Cutter and Ladies Guide. Glasgow, Ky., J. Noble, printer, 1853. http://archive.org/details/garmentcutterlad00hunt.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “The Carte de Visite and Portrait Painting during the Second Empire.” In A.A.E. Disdéri and the Carte de Visite Portrait Photograph, 137–203. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/755288192.
Nead, Lynda. “The Layering of Pleasure: Women, Fashionable Dress and Visual Culture in the Mid-Nineteenth Century.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 35, no. 5 (2013): 489–509.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. 80 Godey’s Full-Color Fashion Plates, 1838-1880. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/868271404.
Piazza, Arianna, ed. Fashion 150: 150 Years, 150 Designers. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/961459695.
Ribeiro, Aileen. Ingres in Fashion: Representations of Dress and Appearance in Ingres’s Images of Women. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/469680932.
Schweinhart, William [from old catalog. The Young Crook’s Guide; Gettysburg [Pa.] Printed by H. C. Neinstedt, 1851. http://archive.org/details/youngcrooksguide00schw.
Severa, Joan L. Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/552147475.
Solomon-Godeau, Abigail. “The Legs of the Countess.” October 39 (Winter 1986): 65–108.
Takeda, Sharon Sadako, Kaye Durland Spilker, Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell, Clarissa Esguerra, and Nicole LaBouff. Fashioning Fashion: European Dress in Detail, 1700-1915. New York: DelMonico Books/Prestel, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/971876353.
Tétart-Vittu, Françoise. “La Couture Avant La Haute Couture.” In Au Paradis Des Dames : Nouveautés, Modes et Confections, 1810-1870, 40–45. Paris: Éditions Paris-Musées, 1992.
Tetart-Vittu, Françoise. Sous l’empire Des Crinolines. Paris: Paris musées, 2008. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1008171995.
Tortora, Phyllis G., and Sara B. Marcketti. Survey of Historic Costume. Sixth edition. New York: Fairchild Books, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/972500782.
Vincent, Susan J., and Denise Amy Baxter, eds. A Cultural History of Dress and Fashion: The Age of Empire (1800-1920). London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/967107605.
Evolution of Fashion 1835-1895 =: Rōman Ishō Ten: Clothing That Captured the Imagination of Japan, the Impact of Romantic Clothing. Kyoto: Kyoto Costume Institute, 1980. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/475808610.
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