The beginning of 1871 saw a brief pause in fashion change due to the Franco-Prussian War and Paris Commune. The bustle (or tournure) with a half-train was the most desirable silhouette, often paired with a tablier, or apron-fronted skirt.


A January “New York Fashions” column in Harper’s Bazar, subtitled “Change of Styles,” carefully outlined changes between the fashions of 1870 and 1871:

“Although we have had no radical change of fashions within a year, the most casual observer must perceive a difference between the costumes of last winter and of the present. The dashing ‘girl of the period’ styles have passed away, and we have in their stead more quiet, refined dressing, suitable for dignified women, yet not too demure for the most youthful. In lieu of costumes made up of colors in violent contrast, we now have shades of one color pervading the suit; the Grecian-bend panier, with its unsightly puff, has given place to a modest tournure and graceful drapery; towering chignons of false hair are supplanted by natural braids that disclose the contour of the head; plump, healthy-looking waists are preferred to waspish ones; instead of skirts ankle short for promenading, we have more graceful ones just clearing the ground, while voluminous trains are discarded for the more sensible half-train; high, curved, French heels are positively outré, and the jaunty jockey hat, with its defiant aigrette, is gradually receding before the demure-looking gipsy bonnet. The last-mentioned change we regret somewhat, but we congratulate our readers on the tasteful, sensible, and lady-like ensemble that a fashionable dressed woman now presents. There is scarcely a target left at which critics can aim their arrows of malice.” (35)

This helpful summary notably makes no reference to the current state of affairs in France, where most French fashion magazines ceased to publish during the Franco-Prussian War, only resuming in April 1871, only to again be interrupted by the outbreak of the Paris Commune. When they finally returned, plates illustrating full mourning dress, rare before the war, were seen in French magazines and their allied publishers in other countries (Figs. 1-2).

Fashion journals in other countries that depended on Paris for fashion innovation and color plates improvised solutions and reported on what news there was. American periodical Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine reported in March 1871, for example: “The new color for winter is a rich shade of red, which, in spite of its repulsive name, sang de Prusse, promises to become very popular” (200). Sang de Prusse (Fig. 3) literally means “blood of the Prussian,” a frightful name, but an unsurprising one given the political circumstances and the tendency to name new colors after contemporary events–magenta takes its name from a bloody battle in Magenta, Italy, for example (Tétart-Vittu 272).

The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine

Fig. 1 - E. Preval (French). The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine, (1871): pl. 1014. Source: Pinterest

La Mode illustrée

Fig. 2 - Adèle-Anaïs Toudouze (French, 1822-1899). La Mode illustrée, no. 27 (January 8, 1871). Source: Bunka Gakuen Library


Fig. 3 - Artist unknown. Victoria, (February 1871). Source: Pinterest


Fig. 4 - Édouard Manet (French, 1832–1883). Repose, ca. 1871. Oil on canvas; 148 x 113 cm (59 1/8 x 44 7/8 in). Providence: Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, 59.027. Bequest of Mrs. Edith Stuyvesant Vanderbilt Gerry. Source: RISD Museum

Mlle Fanshawe, Montréal, QC

Fig. 5 - William Notman (Scottish-Canadian, 1826-1891). Mlle Fanshawe, Montréal, QC, 1871. Albumen print; 17.8 x 12.7 cm. Montreal: Musée McCord, I-68103.1. Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd. Source: Musée McCord

Afternoon dress

Fig. 6 - Designer unknown (European). Afternoon dress, ca. 1871. Cotton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.38.23.247a–d. Gift of Lee Simonson, 1938. Source: The Met

Mode di Parigi

Fig. 7 - A. Lacourieux? (French). Mode di Parigi, December 1871. Source: Pinterest

The British journal World of Fashion thought the war had improved fashion, writing in February 1871:

“In our opinion indeed, the taste in Fashion has been purer and more really elegant, than it would have been if some of the leaders of Parisian Fashion had reigned at the present time. There has been a cessation of that extreme extravagance, both in style and costliness, which has so often formed the subject of remark” (1).

World of Fashion was not afraid to give England the credit for this improvement, remarking that their French fashion plate artists—temporarily relocated to London—“since their arrival in England have acquired a purer taste, and we have no doubt that there will be a great reform, and that Fashion will now become all that can be desired” (1). Similar hopes for the renewal and reformation of fashion were also expressed in French fashion journals after the war.

This desire led to an attempt at simplicity in dress (Figs. 4-8) and a great deal of continuity with the prior year’s styles. Monochromatic styles were embraced and the overall silhouette continued to move towards a bustled profile with a modest train (Figs. 5-8). Given the disruption of the Paris Commune, which saw women take up arms in the streets of Paris, there was also a strong emphasis on domesticity and femininity in 1871 styles. Tablier, or apron-front, gowns became especially popular (Figs. 6, 9-10), with Harper’s Bazar commenting in June: “Coquettish little aprons of various materials from Swiss muslin to black silk, now form part of afternoon costumes for the house… the whole tablier is so elaborately trimmed with ruffles, lace, and passementerie that it becomes an ornament for almost any dress” (371).

Carte de visite

Fig. 8 - Photographer unknown. Carte de visite, 1871. Source: Pinterest

Portrait of Baroness Paul von Derwies

Fig. 9 - Alexandre Cabanel (French, 1823-1889). Portrait of Baroness Paul von Derwies, 1871. Oil on canvas; 140 x 105 cm (55.12 x 41.34 in). Source: Athenaeum

Maria von Berg

Fig. 10 - Michele Gordigiani (Italian, 1835-1909). Maria von Berg, 1871. St. Petersburg: Hermitage. Source: Athenaeum

Magasin des Demoiselles

Fig. 11 - Isabelle Toudouze (French, 1850-1907). Magasin des Demoiselles, (September 10, 1871). Source: Pinterest

Miss Dolton, Montreal, QC

Fig. 12 - William Notman (Scottish-Canadian, 1826-1891). Miss Dolton, Montreal, QC, 1871. Albumen print; 17.8 x 12.7 cm. Montreal: Musée McCord, I-63890.1. Source: Musée McCord

Light purple silk fringed dress

Fig. 13 - Designer unknown. Light purple silk fringed dress, 1871. Bath: Fashion Museum. Source: Fashion Museum, Bath

Skirts with multiple flounces and trimmings of lace and fringe were frequently seen (Figs. 11-16). A September 1871 column in the British periodical Bow Bells notes an enthusiasm for bright colors and lace flounces: “Satins of the brightest hues, deeply trained and covered with flounced muslin or lace robes…” (139).

Jules Elie Delaunay’s 1871 Portrait of Madame Mestayer (Fig. 14) embodies many of the trends of the day in its restrained color palette—black, with only touches of pink—and yet emphasis on femininity—with bows, ruffles and lace as accents.  A dress with a similar neckline and restrained simplicity can be seen in Fig. 7.  This deft navigation of the fraught fashion landscape after the Franco-Prussian War and Paris Commune befits Mme Mestayer’s status as “wife of the president of the Nantes Museum board… [and] a close friend of Delaunay and [fashionable painter Auguste] Toulmouche and a cultivated woman whose salon was frequented the city’s intellectuals” (Sciama).

Portrait of Madame Mestayer

Fig. 14 - Jules Elie Delaunay (French, 1828-1891). Portrait of Madame Mestayer, 1871. Oil on canvas; 78 x 64 cm. Inv. 2270. Mestayer Bequest, 1940. Source: Jules Elie Delaunay


Fig. 15 - Collection Geszler. 1871. Published 1898. Source: Pinterest

The Young Ladies' Journal

Fig. 16 - Héloïse Colin (French, 1819-1873). The Young Ladies' Journal, no. 92 (September 1, 1871). Source: Pinterest


[To come…]

Jeantaud, Linet and Laine

Fig. 1 - Edgar Degas (French, 1834-1917). Jeantaud, Linet and Laine, 1871. Oil on canvas; 38 × 46 cm. Paris: Musée d'Orsay, RF 2825. Source: Wikimedia

Le groupe de D. J. Edwards, Montréal, QC

Fig. 2 - William Notman (Scottish-Canadian, 1826-1891). Le groupe de D. J. Edwards, Montréal, QC, 1871. Albumen print. Montreal: Musée McCord, I-62715.1. Source: Musée McCord

Gentleman's Magazine of Fashion

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown. Gentleman's Magazine of Fashion, vol. 23, no. 265 (January 1871): pl. 2. Source: Google Books

Gazette of Fashion

Fig. 4 - Artist unknown. Gazette of Fashion, vol. 26, no. 308 (December 1, 1871). Source: Google Books

Double-breasted frock coat

Fig. 5 - Maker unknown (Irish). Double-breasted frock coat, 1871. Fine wool; 97 cm chest, length: 88 cm overall. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, T.47-1947. Given by Mr A. W. Furlong. Source: V&A


Concepción Serrano, later Countess of Santovenia

Fig. 1 - Eduardo Rosales Gallinas (Spanish, 1836-1873). Concepción Serrano, later Countess of Santovenia, 1871. Oil on canvas; 163 x 106 cm. Madrid: Museo del Prado, P06711. Source: Prado


Fig. 2 - Dallinger, Modes, Richmond (British). Dress, ca. 1871. Silk, cotton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983.93.3a–c. Purchase, Irene Lewisohn Trust Gift, 1983. Source: The Met

Carte de visite

Fig. 3 - Photographer unknown (German). Carte de visite, ca. 1871. Source: Pinterest

Moniteur de la mode

Fig. 4 - A. Bodin? (French). Moniteur de la mode, (August 1871): pl. 1005. Source: Google Books


Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1871

Treaty of Frankfurt, 1871. Source: Omniatlas

  • 1870-71 – Prussians besiege Paris
    • “During the siege of Paris, many designers, including Worth and Madame Maugas, organize ambulances for the men protecting the city. Department stores remain open, but some, like Les Grands Magasins du Louvre (located on the Rue de Rivoli) and Pygmalion (on the rue Saint-Denis) are damaged by fires.” (IFM 274)
    • “Prussia defeats France in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71), instigated by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898) with the aim of a unified Germany. Bismarck triumphs, and William I, king of Prussia (r. 1861–88), is crowned emperor of Germany (r. 1871–88) in the same year. As a result of the war, Germany gains the greater part of former French territories Alsace and Lorraine.” (The MET)
  • March 26 – The Paris Commune is formally established in Paris.
  • May 30 – French Third Republic: Government suppression of the Paris Commune rebellion is completed.

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Bow Bells. Vol. 10. London: John Dicks, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=k70aAQAAMAAJ.
Bow Bells. Vol. 13. London: John Dicks, 1871. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951000731482x.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1871. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2976235.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 28. New York, 1871. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676342.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 82–83. Philadelphia, 1871. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951d00322056l.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 82. Philadelphia, 1871. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.16293935.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 82. Philadelphia, 1871. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015038749696.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 83. Philadelphia, 1871. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.48317957.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 4. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=lKoxAQAAMAAJ.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 4. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1871. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1871.
Journal des demoiselles. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=S5YKAAAAYAAJ.
La Mode Illustrée: Journal de La Famille. Starts with 208-0013-004.Jpg, 1871. http://digital.bunka.ac.jp/kichosho/file/No.208/.
La Sylphide : journal de modes, de littérature, de théâtres et de musique, 1871. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb34444962f/date1871.
Le Journal des coiffeurs : publication des coiffeurs réunis, 1871. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb344436197/date1871.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. Paris: Goubaud, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=q4VMAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 1. Paris: Aubert, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=zAJUAAAAcAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 59–60. C.J. Peterson, 1871. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101076520012.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 59–60. C.J. Peterson, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=JJBFAQAAMAAJ.
The World of Fashion and Continental Feuilletons [Afterw.] The Ladies’ Monthly Magazine, The World of Fashion [Afterw.] Le Monde Élégant; or The World of Fashion, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=rBwGAAAAQAAJ.
Victoria : Illustrirte Muster- Und Moden-Zeitung. Vol. 21. Berlin: Victoria-Verl., 1871. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
A member of the aristocracy. Manners and Tone of Good Society. Or, Solecisms to Be Avoided. London: F. Warne and co., 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007958573.
Brinton, Daniel Garrison, and George H. Napheys. The Laws of Health in Relation to the Human Form. Personal Health. Springfield, Mass.: W.J. Holland, 1870. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011609586.
Cheadle, Eliza. Manners of Modern Society: Being a Book of Etiquette. London ; New York: Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1892. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011159363.
Duffey, Eliza Bisbee. The Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s Etiquette: A Complete Manual of the Manners and Dress of American Society. Philadelphia: Porter and Coates, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007126751.
Fox, George Patrick. [from old catalog]. Fashion: The Power That Influences the World. New York: American news company; [etc., etc.], 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011204646.
Gow, Alexander M. Good Morals and Gentle Manners. For Schools and Families. Cincinnati, New York: Van ANtwerp, Bragg & co., 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/002434282.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness: A Complete Handbook for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society. Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008679158.
Johnson, S. O., and Cairns Collection of American Women Writers. A Manual of Etiquette with Hints on Politeness and Good Breeding. Philadelphia: D. McKay, 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777095.
Kernan, James. Perfect Etiquette, or, How to Behave in Society: A Complete Manual for Ladies and Gentlemen ... New York: A. Cogswell, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100485515.
Moore, Bloomfield H. Sensible Etiquette of the Best Society, Customs, Manners, Morals, and Home Culture. Philadelphia: Porter and Coates, 1878. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007957836.
Powers, S. D. Behaving: Or, Papers on Children’s Etiquette. Boston: D. Lothrop, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100557991.
Ruth, John A., and C. S. Snyder. Decorum, a Practical Treatise on Etiquette and Dress of the BestAmerican Society. Chicago: J.A. Ruth, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007671336.
Thornwell, Emily., and J.B. Lippincott & Co. The Lady’s Guide to Perfect Gentility: In Manners, Dress, and Conversation, in the Family, in Company, at the Piano-Forte, the Table, in the Street, and in Gentlemen’s Society ; Also a Useful Instructor in Letter Writing, Toilet Preparations, Fancy Needlework, Millinery, Dressmaking, Care of Wardrobe, the Hair, Teeth, Hands, Lips, Complexion, Etc. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1876. http://hdl.handle.net/10111/UIUCBB:thorem0001ladgui.
Tomes, Robert. The Bazar Book of Decorum. The Care of the Person, Manners, Etiquette, and Ceremonials ... New York: Harper & Brothers, 1870. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/102133514.
Wells, Samuel R. How to Behave; a Pocket Manual of Republican Etiquette, and Guide to Correct Personal Habits... Hand-Books for Home Improvement,No. III. New York: S. R. Wells, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921276.
La Vraie Politesse et Le Bon Ton plus Particuliè Rement à l’usage Des Élèves Des Collèges, Pensionnats, Etc., Etc., et de Tous Ceux Qui Entrent Dans La Société. CIHM/ICMH Microfiche Series = CIHM/ICMH Collection de Microfiches ;No. 36736. Montréal? s.n.], 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100275186.
High-Life: Usi e Costumi Della Vita Elegante, 1879. Milano: Direzione generale della Raccolta Daugnon, 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100223990.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen: With Thougts, Hints and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances, Nice Points of Taste and Good Manners ... Hand-Books of Society ;2. New York: G.W. Carleton, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012454830.
The Manners That Win. Minneapolis: Buckeye Pub. Co., 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012393095.
Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=ziIGAAAAQAAJ.
Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1871. http://dbooks.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/books/PDFs/555043828.pdf.
The Gentleman’s Magazine of Fashion. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Company, 1871. https://books.google.com/books?id=4BcGAAAAQAAJ.
Hartley, Cecil B. The Gentlemen’s Book of Etiquette and Manual of Politeness: Being a Complete Guide for a Gentleman’s Conduct in All His Relations towards Society: Containing Rules for the Etiquette to Be Observed in the Street, at Table, in the Ball Room, Evening Party, and Morning Call: With Full Directions for Polite Correspndence, Dress, Conversation, Manly Exercises, and Accomplishments: From the Best French, English, and American Authorities. Boston: Locke, 1871. http://hdl.handle.net/10111/UIUCBB:hartce0001genboo.
Hartley, Cecil B. The Gentlemen’s Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness: Being a Complete Guide for a Gentleman’s Conduct in All His Relations towards Society. Boston: Locke, 1871. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100605672.

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. “Chronology,” n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
Vintage Fashion Guild. “Fashion Timeline: 1870 To 1880,” n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1870-to-1880/.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “History of Fashion 1840 - 1900,” July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion,” January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
History of Fashion and Dress. “Victorian Era: First Bustle and Natural Form (1870-1883),” n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/firstbustle.html.
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Blanc, Charles. Art in Ornament and Dress. New York: Scribner Welford and Armstrong, 1877. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/903437797.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Burnham, Helen. “Fashion and the Representation of Modernity: Studies in the Late Work of Édouard Manet (1832-1883).” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/226381287.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
Crawford, William T. [from old catalog. Crawford’s System on the Science and Art of Garment Cutting. [Providence?, 1874. http://archive.org/details/crawfordssystemo00craw.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
De Young, Justine. “Fashion and the Press.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 233–43. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Dombrowski, André. “The Emperor’s Last Clothes: Cézanne, Fashion and ‘l’année Terrible.’” Burlington Magazine 148, no. 1242 (September 2006): 586–94. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20074554.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Flamant-Paparatti, Danielle. Bien Pensantes, Cocodettes et Bas Bleus : La Femme Bourgeoise à Travers La Presse Féminine et Familiale (1873-1887). Paris: Denoël, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/906468967.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Furbank, Philip Nicholas, and Alex M. Cain. Mallarmé on Fashion: A Translation of the Fashion Magazine, Le Dernière Mode, with Commentary. New York: Berg, 2004. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/936905110.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Glencross, William [from old catalog. A Scientific Guide to Practical Cutting. New York, W. Glencross, 1873. http://archive.org/details/scientificguidet00glen.
Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hambourg, Maria Morris. Nadar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851034965.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
Koch, Augustus [from old catalog. The Cutters’ Centennial Guide; Poughkeepsie, N.Y. [Printed at the office of the Poughkeepsie telegraph and daily press], 1876. http://archive.org/details/cutterscentennia00koch.
Lambert, Miles. Fashion in Photographs 1860-1880. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300306371.
Lansdell, Avril. Fashion à La Carte, 1860-1900: A Study of Fashion through Cartes-de-Visite. History in Camera. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/436041340.
Linthicum, William O. [from old catalog. Divisional and Exact Measurement Systems for Garment Cutting. New York, Morgan, Comes & Lawrence, stationers and printers, 1872. http://archive.org/details/divisionalexactm00lint.
Linthicum, William O. [from old catalog]. Divisional and Exact Measurement Systems for Garment Cutting. New York: Lawrence & Allen, stationers and printers, 1876. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009584972.
MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Grace Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Samuel Sachs. Whistler, Women, & Fashion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/757386204.
Madison, J. O. (James Otis). Elements of Garment Cutting. Hartford, Conn., The Case, Lockwood & Brainard company, printers, 1878. http://archive.org/details/elementsofgarmen00madi.
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