The year 1870 was characterized by an extensive use of vibrant, contrasting colors and ostentatious trims, tassels, and flounces. Emphasis was now placed on individual style over the following of trends. By juxtaposing the desire to be fashionable for the moment with the desire to find what looks good on one’s self, society at large saw wide variety in interpretations of fashionable dress.



ccording to a column entitled “A Word about Fashion” in the April 1870 Harper’s Bazar, people realized the significance of taste when they noticed fashion’s constantly-changing nature:

“Never before has there been the same liberty for the exercise of taste and for the consideration of convenience. Surely, then, now is our opportunity to secure abundant variety in society, at the same time that we secure repose for ourselves, since every one may be different, while each may have a style suitable to herself.” (236)

In 1870, bright colors were very fashionable (Fig. 1). Often trims of the same color in a darker shade or different color finished the edges of the loops, tabliers, volants and flounces of the dress (Fig. 2).

Although the dresses were considered to be extremely loud visually, their overall size was considerably smaller than what it once was. Convenience increasingly became a factor in women’s dress. One of the most notable changes in size and silhouette was the shift from the crinoline to the bustle (Fig. 3). A June “Paris Modes” column in Harper’s Bazar, described this modification of skirt volume:

“The shape of the present fashion may be understood by imagining an ordinary hoop skirt cut in halves; the front half is suppressed, the other with its hoops remains, and is made to form a large sized tournure by the addition of a few hoops on the upper part…” (395)

Another significant change was in the length of dress. In previous years, dresses were often too long and required the wearer to lift them up as to not drag the hem across the floor. In response, the most favorable dress length was right above the ankle (Fig. 4). In France, high lows became common and in America an even hem was common. A December “New York Fashions” column in Harper’s Bazar, described this ideal length: 

“the great majority of ladies both here and in the country, continue to wear their dresses of a convenient walking length, so that no one need fear being out of the fashion in wearing a skirt that is neither long enough to drag on the ground nor short enough to be ungraceful.” (771)

Day dress

Fig. 1 - Maker unknown (British). Day dress, 1870-73. Aniline dyed silk, lined with cotton, trimmed with satin and bobbin lace, reinforced with whalebone. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, T.182&A-1914. Given by Mr. Leonard Shields. Source: Victoria and Albert Museum

La Mode Illustrée

Fig. 2 - "Toilettes de Mademoiselle Lise" (French). La Mode Illustrée, 1870. Hand-colored engraving. Source: Pinterest


Fig. 3 - Maker unknown (American). Dress, 1870-73. Silk. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1979.346.113a, b. Gift of The New York Historical Society, 1979. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Home-dress, Under-Body, Collar.

Fig. 4 - Artist unknown (American). Home-dress, Under-Body, Collar., August 1870. Ink on paper. New York: New York Public Library, NYPL catalog ID: b17566456. Wallach Division Picture Collection. Source: NYPL Digital Collections

The year of 1870 was also notable for start of the Franco-Prussian War. Because of the tragedy of the Paris siege, a number of fashion publications halted their work and focused their attention and resources on the events of the war. However, despite criticism, some journals such as La Mode Illustrée continued to produce and distribute their magazines to the world. An October column called “Madame Raymond’s Letter” in Harper’s Bazar described this impressive continuation of communication (as well as backup plans to rely on German fashion news):

“thus far our communication with it (La Mode Illustrée) has been uninterrupted; and, in any case, we depend so largely on Berlin, the other fashion centre of Europe, which recent events have exalted to such importance, that our friends need fear no falling off in the supply of information respecting the styles of the coming season.” (659)

Domenico Induno’s Donna allo specchio (Fig. 5) embodies a number of the trends prevalent in 1870. The dress is made from a vibrant turquoise color and the bow trimmings are made with a contrasting purple. There is evidence of a bustle, and the skirt has a hem that is higher in the front than in the back.

Donna allo specchio

Fig. 5 - Domenico Induno (Italian, 1815-1878). Donna allo specchio, 1870. Oil on canvas. Private Collection. Source: Artribune


Fig. 6 - Maker unknown (British). Dress, ca. 1870. Silk. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980.409.1a–c. Catharine Breyer Van Bomel Foundation Fund, 1980. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art


Fig. 7 - Maker unknown (French). Dress, ca. 1870. Silk. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1979.346.70a–c. Gift of The New York Historical Society, 1979. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art


Fig. 8 - Maker unknown (American). Dress, 1868-70. Silk. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.44.92.1a–c. Gift of Mrs. William H. Johns, 1944. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Woman's dress

Fig. 9 - Charles Frederick Worth (French, 1825-1895). Woman's dress, ca. 1870. Silk faille with supplementary warp stripe pattern; lace. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 002.696.1-5. Gift of Lois Adams Goldstone. Source: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston



Fig. 1 - Maker unknown (British). Trousers, 1870-80. Wool, lined with cotton. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, T.58-1933. Given by Dr C. W. Cunnington. Source: Victorian and Albert Museum

The Gentleman's Magazine of Fashion

Fig. 2 - Artist unknown. The Gentleman's Magazine of Fashion, January 1870. Ink on paper. Source: Google Books

Man's Suit (Jacket and Trousers)

Fig. 3 - Maker unknown (English). Man's Suit (Jacket and Trousers), 1860-70. Wool twill. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, M.2010.33.9a-b. Purchased with funds provided by Michael and Ellen Michelson. Source: Los Angeles County Museum of Art

The Gentleman's Magazine of Fashion

Fig. 4 - Artist unknown. The Gentleman's Magazine of Fashion, November 1870. Ink on paper. Source: Google Books


Girl's party dress

Fig. 1 - Maker unknown (American). Girl's party dress, 1865‒70. Striped silk taffeta. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 50.2370a-b. Gift of Mrs. Samuel Mixter, Mrs. Samuel J. Mixter, and Mrs. Henry A. Morss, Jr.. Source: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Linen Suit For Boy From 6 To 8 Years Old, Jacket For Girl From 7 To 9 Years Old, Child'S Pinafore

Fig. 2 - Artist unknown (American). Linen Suit For Boy From 6 To 8 Years Old, Jacket For Girl From 7 To 9 Years Old, Child'S Pinafore, August 1870. Ink on paper; 22 x 14 cm. New York: New York Public Library, NYPL catalog ID: b17566456. Source: NYPL Digital Collections

Child's dress

Fig. 3 - Maker unknown (English). Child's dress, ca. 1870. Velvet, book muslin, cotton twill, ribbon, lace, satin. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, CIRC.105-1965. Gift of Mrs E M Benton. Source: V&A Museum of Childhood

Child's dress

Fig. 4 - Maker unknown (American or British). Child's dress, ca. 1870. Silk. Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg. Source: Pinterest


Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1870 

Europe, 1870: Siege of Paris. Source: Omniatlas

  • 1870-71 – Prussians besiege Paris
    • “During the siege of Paris, many designers, including Worth and Madame Maugas, organize ambulances for the men protecting the city. Department stores remain open, but some, like Les Grands Magasins du Louvre (located on the Rue de Rivoli) and Pygmalion (on the rue Saint-Denis) are damaged by fires.” (IFM 274)
    • “Prussia defeats France in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71), instigated by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898) with the aim of a unified Germany. Bismarck triumphs, and William I, king of Prussia (r. 1861–88), is crowned emperor of Germany (r. 1871–88) in the same year. As a result of the war, Germany gains the greater part of former French territories Alsace and Lorraine.” (The MET)
  • July 19 – Franco-Prussian War: France declares war on Prussia.
  • 4 September – Third Republic declared in Paris. Government of National Defense established.
  • September 19 – The Siege of Paris in the Franco-Prussian War begins.

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Beeton’s Book of Needlework. London: Ward, Lock and Tyler, 1870. http://books.google.com/books?id=lxHdK1ds8twC\.
Bow Bells. Vol. 11. London: John Dicks, 1870. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.319510007314801.
Bow Bells. Vol. 13. London: John Dicks, 1870. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.31951000731482x.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1870. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2996927.
Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 27. New York, 1870. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081676334.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 80–81. Philadelphia, 1870. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015027389348.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 3. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1870. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1870.
Journal des demoiselles. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=314EAAAAYAAJ.
La Mode Illustrée: Journal de La Famille. Starts with 208-0012-002.Jpg, 1870. http://digital.bunka.ac.jp/kichosho/file/No.208/.
La Sylphide : journal de modes, de littérature, de théâtres et de musique, 1870. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb34444962f/date1870.
Le Journal des coiffeurs : publication des coiffeurs réunis, 1870. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb344436197/date1870.
Le Journal des marchandes de modes : revue spéciale des chapeaux, bonnets, coiffures et lingeries. Paris, 1870. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb32800020n/date1870.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. Paris: Goubaud, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=-YVMAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 1. Paris: Aubert, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=0tNBAAAAcAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 57–58. C.J. Peterson, 1870. http://books.google.com/books?id=YiLQAAAAMAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 57–58. C.J. Peterson, 1870. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.30000093881211.
The Lady’s Friend. Philadelphia: Deacon & Peterson, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=8JceAQAAMAAJ.
The London and Paris Ladies’ Magazine of Fashion. Vol. 43, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=9yEGAAAAQAAJ.
The Milliner and Dressmaker. Paris: Goubaud, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=YnMOAAAAQAAJ.
Victoria : Illustrirte Muster- Und Moden-Zeitung. Vol. 20. Berlin: Victoria-Verl., 1870. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
A member of the aristocracy. Manners and Tone of Good Society. Or, Solecisms to Be Avoided. London: F. Warne and co., 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007958573.
Brinton, Daniel Garrison, and George H. Napheys. The Laws of Health in Relation to the Human Form. Personal Health. Springfield, Mass.: W.J. Holland, 1870. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011609586.
Cheadle, Eliza. Manners of Modern Society: Being a Book of Etiquette. London ; New York: Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1892. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011159363.
Duffey, Eliza Bisbee. The Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s Etiquette: A Complete Manual of the Manners and Dress of American Society. Philadelphia: Porter and Coates, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007126751.
Fox, George Patrick. [from old catalog]. Fashion: The Power That Influences the World. New York: American news company; [etc., etc.], 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011204646.
Gow, Alexander M. Good Morals and Gentle Manners. For Schools and Families. Cincinnati, New York: Van ANtwerp, Bragg & co., 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/002434282.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness: A Complete Handbook for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society. Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008679158.
Johnson, S. O., and Cairns Collection of American Women Writers. A Manual of Etiquette with Hints on Politeness and Good Breeding. Philadelphia: D. McKay, 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777095.
Kernan, James. Perfect Etiquette, or, How to Behave in Society: A Complete Manual for Ladies and Gentlemen ... New York: A. Cogswell, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100485515.
Moore, Bloomfield H. Sensible Etiquette of the Best Society, Customs, Manners, Morals, and Home Culture. Philadelphia: Porter and Coates, 1878. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007957836.
Powers, S. D. Behaving: Or, Papers on Children’s Etiquette. Boston: D. Lothrop, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100557991.
Ruth, John A., and C. S. Snyder. Decorum, a Practical Treatise on Etiquette and Dress of the BestAmerican Society. Chicago: J.A. Ruth, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007671336.
Thornwell, Emily., and J.B. Lippincott & Co. The Lady’s Guide to Perfect Gentility: In Manners, Dress, and Conversation, in the Family, in Company, at the Piano-Forte, the Table, in the Street, and in Gentlemen’s Society ; Also a Useful Instructor in Letter Writing, Toilet Preparations, Fancy Needlework, Millinery, Dressmaking, Care of Wardrobe, the Hair, Teeth, Hands, Lips, Complexion, Etc. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1876. http://hdl.handle.net/10111/UIUCBB:thorem0001ladgui.
Tomes, Robert. The Bazar Book of Decorum. The Care of the Person, Manners, Etiquette, and Ceremonials ... New York: Harper & Brothers, 1870. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/102133514.
Wells, Samuel R. How to Behave; a Pocket Manual of Republican Etiquette, and Guide to Correct Personal Habits... Hand-Books for Home Improvement,No. III. New York: S. R. Wells, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921276.
La Vraie Politesse et Le Bon Ton plus Particuliè Rement à l’usage Des Élèves Des Collèges, Pensionnats, Etc., Etc., et de Tous Ceux Qui Entrent Dans La Société. CIHM/ICMH Microfiche Series = CIHM/ICMH Collection de Microfiches ;No. 36736. Montréal? s.n.], 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100275186.
High-Life: Usi e Costumi Della Vita Elegante, 1879. Milano: Direzione generale della Raccolta Daugnon, 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100223990.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen: With Thougts, Hints and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances, Nice Points of Taste and Good Manners ... Hand-Books of Society ;2. New York: G.W. Carleton, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012454830.
The Manners That Win. Minneapolis: Buckeye Pub. Co., 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012393095.
Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=FSgGAAAAQAAJ.
The Gentleman’s Magazine of Fashion. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Company, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=wRcGAAAAQAAJ.
The West-End Gazette of Gentlemen’s Fashions. Vol. 8, 1870. https://books.google.com/books?id=sxUGAAAAQAAJ.

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. “Chronology,” n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
Vintage Fashion Guild. “Fashion Timeline: 1870 To 1880,” n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1870-to-1880/.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “History of Fashion 1840 - 1900,” July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion,” January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
History of Fashion and Dress. “Victorian Era: First Bustle and Natural Form (1870-1883),” n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/firstbustle.html.
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Blanc, Charles. Art in Ornament and Dress. New York: Scribner Welford and Armstrong, 1877. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/903437797.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Burnham, Helen. “Fashion and the Representation of Modernity: Studies in the Late Work of Édouard Manet (1832-1883).” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/226381287.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
Crawford, William T. [from old catalog. Crawford’s System on the Science and Art of Garment Cutting. [Providence?, 1874. http://archive.org/details/crawfordssystemo00craw.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
De Young, Justine. “Fashion and the Press.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 233–43. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Dombrowski, André. “The Emperor’s Last Clothes: Cézanne, Fashion and ‘l’année Terrible.’” Burlington Magazine 148, no. 1242 (September 2006): 586–94. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20074554.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Flamant-Paparatti, Danielle. Bien Pensantes, Cocodettes et Bas Bleus : La Femme Bourgeoise à Travers La Presse Féminine et Familiale (1873-1887). Paris: Denoël, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/906468967.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Furbank, Philip Nicholas, and Alex M. Cain. Mallarmé on Fashion: A Translation of the Fashion Magazine, Le Dernière Mode, with Commentary. New York: Berg, 2004. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/936905110.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Glencross, William [from old catalog. A Scientific Guide to Practical Cutting. New York, W. Glencross, 1873. http://archive.org/details/scientificguidet00glen.
Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hambourg, Maria Morris. Nadar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851034965.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
Koch, Augustus [from old catalog. The Cutters’ Centennial Guide; Poughkeepsie, N.Y. [Printed at the office of the Poughkeepsie telegraph and daily press], 1876. http://archive.org/details/cutterscentennia00koch.
Lambert, Miles. Fashion in Photographs 1860-1880. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300306371.
Lansdell, Avril. Fashion à La Carte, 1860-1900: A Study of Fashion through Cartes-de-Visite. History in Camera. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/436041340.
Linthicum, William O. [from old catalog. Divisional and Exact Measurement Systems for Garment Cutting. New York, Morgan, Comes & Lawrence, stationers and printers, 1872. http://archive.org/details/divisionalexactm00lint.
Linthicum, William O. [from old catalog]. Divisional and Exact Measurement Systems for Garment Cutting. New York: Lawrence & Allen, stationers and printers, 1876. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009584972.
MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Grace Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Samuel Sachs. Whistler, Women, & Fashion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/757386204.
Madison, J. O. (James Otis). Elements of Garment Cutting. Hartford, Conn., The Case, Lockwood & Brainard company, printers, 1878. http://archive.org/details/elementsofgarmen00madi.
Maeder, Edward, and Evelyn Ackerman, eds. Dressed for the Country, 1860-1900: Exhibition. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/562356615.
Matheson, H. [from old catalog. H. Matheson’s Scientific and Practical Guide for the Tailor’s Cutting Department. New York, H. Matheson, 1871. http://archive.org/details/hmathesonsscient00math.
Matheson, H. [from old catalog]. H. Matheson’s Scientific and Practical Guide for the Tailor’s Cutting Department. New York: H. Matheson, 1871. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009590484.
Matyjaszkiewicz, Krystyna. “Costume in Tissot’s Pictures.” In James Tissot, 64–77. Oxford: Phaidon, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630471252.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “Photography, Fashion, and the Cult of Appearances.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 197–207. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Muller, Florence, Farid Chenoune, and Phillippe Thiébaut. Dior Impressions: The Inspiration and Influence of Impressionism at the House of Dior. New York: Rizzoli, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876440735.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. 80 Godey’s Full-Color Fashion Plates, 1838-1880. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/868271404.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. Full-Color Victorian Fashions, 1870-1893. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1999. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/40838676.
Piazza, Arianna, ed. Fashion 150: 150 Years, 150 Designers. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/961459695.
Ribeiro, Aileen. “The Art of Dress: Fashion in Renoir’s La Loge.” In Renoir at the Theatre: Looking at La Loge, edited by Ernst Vegelin van Claerbergen and Barnaby Wright, 45–63. London: The Courtauld Gallery, 2008. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/938162816.
Roskill, Mark W. “Early Impressionism and the Fashion Print.” The Burlington Magazine 112, no. 807 (June 1970): 390–95. http://www.jstor.org/stable/876343.
Schirrmeister, Anne. “La Dernière Mode: Berthe Morisot and Costume.” In Perspectives on Morisot, edited by T. J. Edelstein, 103–15. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1990. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/463695207.
Selle, William [from old catalog. A Treatise on the Measurement of the Human Body and the Art of Cutting Materials for Gentlemen’s Clothes. Chicago, Ill., C. F. Lichtner, book and job printer, 1873. http://archive.org/details/treatiseonmeasur00sell.
Selle, William [from old catalog. Die lehre der körpermessung und der kunst des zuschneidens von herrenkleidern. Chicago, Ill., Buch- und accidenz-druckerei von C. F. Lichtner, 1873. http://archive.org/details/dielehrederkrp00sell.
Severa, Joan L. Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/552147475.
Fox Historic Costume Collection. “1870-1889 (Bustle),” 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/FoxHCC/1870-1889-bustle/.
Pocket Museum. “1870s Accessories,” 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-accessories/.
Pocket Museum. “1870s Fashion,” 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870-s-fashion/.
Pocket Museum. “1870s Fashion in Photographs,” 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-fashion-in-photographs/.
Pocket Museum. “1870s Fashion Plates,” 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-fashion-plates/.
Pocket Museum. “1870s Fashion: Men,” 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-fashion-men/.
Pocket Museum. “1870s Outerwear,” 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-outerwear/.
Pocket Museum. “1870s Portrait Paintings,” 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-portrait-paintings/.
Pocket Museum. “1870s Wedding Fashions,” 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1870s-wedding-fashions/.
“Fashion Art - 1870’s,” 1870s. https://www.pinterest.com/tklein1014/fashion-art-1870-s/.