OVERVIEW

1863 saw the crinoline still reigning triumphant with full bell-shaped skirts and tiny, nipped-in corseted waists the ideal silhouette—in part due to the support of the French Empress Eugénie. In more avant-garde circles, some were beginning to abandon the crinoline.

Womenswear

E

uropean fashion during the 1860s is distinguished by small waists, achieved with corsets, and fuller “bell” skirts. The shapes of these skirts are attained through the use of crinolines and hoops (Wikipedia).

An 1863 “Chitchat Upon New York and Philadelphia Fashions for March” column in Godey’s Lady’s Book emphasized the prominence of the crinoline in 1860s fashion:

“Crinoline reigns triumphant, and, consequently, skirts are still worn very full. The back breadths are faced with a patent lining, a stiff material to be had of all colors, and which causes the dress to spread very gracefully. The newest hoops which we have seen are from Mme. Demorset’s. They are gored, very wide at the bottom, tapering to the waist, so small, indeed, that the hoops fit closely to the figure. Many of the hoops are covered with a white or colored case, on which is buttoned a deep flounce, which may be changed to a white or colored one, as the weather may permit. By adopting this method, a lady may always well jorponèe [sic].” (317)

Peterson’s Magazine 1863 editorial subtitled “Will Crinoline Last?” remarks that the fall of the crinoline is often predicted, but is never realized. They emphasized that Empress Eugenie’s role in setting fashion:

“The Empress of the French protects it, and it remains fashionable. The Countess Walewski, notwithstanding, appeared at a court ball last month without any crinoline whatever; but that is not sufficient to dethrone it, the example must be set by the Empress Eugenie herself; she it was who made the fashion, and she is not likely to abandon it.”  (473)

The column goes on to praise the crinoline, remarking that it “adds dignity to the figure, causes the waist to look smaller, and gives grace to many women, who would look awkward without it” (473).

Dress

Fig. 1 - Designer unknown (American). Dress, 1860-1865. Silk, mother-of-pearl. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.69.33.4a–d. Gift of Mary Pierrepont Beckwith, 1969. Source: The Met

Mrs. Thomas Hodgins, Montreal, QC, 1863

Fig. 2 - William Notman (Canadian, 1826-1891). Mrs. Thomas Hodgins, Montreal, QC, 1863, 1863. Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - albumen process; 8 x 5 cm. Montreal: McCord Museum, I-8187.1. Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd. Source: McCord Museum

Mrs. D. C. Taylor, Montreal, QC, 1863

Fig. 3 - William Notman (Canadian, 1826-1891). Mrs. D. C. Taylor, Montreal, QC, 1863, 1863. Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - albumen process; 8.5 x 5.6 cm. Montreal: McCord Museum, I-8452.1. Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd. Source: McCord Museum

Le Moniteur de la Mode

Fig. 4 - Jules David (French, 1808-1892). Le Moniteur de la Mode, March 1863. Source: The Bartos Collection

Godey's Fashions For February 1863

Fig. 5 - Artist unknown. Godey's Fashions For February 1863, 1863. Print; 21 x 29 cm (8 x 11 1/4 in). New York: The New York Public Library Digital Collections. Source: NYPL

Morning dress

Fig. 6 - Designer unknown (American). Morning dress, early 1860s. Cotton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.60.6.10. Gift of Chauncey Stillman, 1960. Source: The Met

E

uropean day dresses displayed wide pagoda sleeves worn over under sleeves or engageantes (Wikipedia) (Fig. 5). Another notable sleeve style in the 1860s was the bishop sleeve, which is simply the gathering of the full pagoda sleeve into a decorated cuff (Fig. 2). Daywear featured high necklines and are usually emphasized with lace or tatted collars or chemisettes, achieving a demure look (Wikipedia) (Fig. 5). Daywear ensembles also come with matching mantles and cloaks, to be worn outdoors (Fig. 4).

An April 1863 “Fashions” column in The Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine noted:

“A great variety is likely to prevail in Mantles and Cloaks this year. The scarf-shaped mantilla will once more be in favour, together with the collets, or round capes, the tight-fitting casaques, and the small saute-en-barques, so much preferred last summer. The shape of these last-named garments is to be slightly modified; the seams will be taken in a little, so that the cloak may fit somewhat closer to the waist, which will certainly be a great improvement, as the very loose saute-en-barque had a very ungraceful appearance, entirely hiding the figure.” (284)

This article further notes that garments that emphasize the figure are ideal. In contrast to the daywear ensembles, evening gowns were much more revealing and had low off-the-shoulder necklines and short sleeves, and were accessorized with short gloves or lace or crocheted finger-less mitts (Wikipedia) (Fig. 7-12).

A January “Fashions” column in The Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine 1863, classified the different materials used for evening gowns:

“The material for ball dresses may be classified under two heads: rich and costly silk for the middle-aged matron [Fig. 9], and the light, airy fabrics for young ladies, both married and single [Fig. 7].” (140)

Dresses in the 1860s, both daywear and evening, were embellished with ruffles, pleats, and scallops. Hairstyles during the 1860s often featured a part in the middle. Hair was usually smoothed or waved over the ears. The ends of the hair was worn pinned in a bun or roll. To keep hair in place, braids are used and then pinned in varied fashions to the head. Occasionally, a few curls dangled behind the neck. Holding the hair in place was usually achieved using hair oils and pomades (Wikipedia) (Fig. 3, 9).

Bonnets were prevalent as a hair accessory during the 1860s (Fig. 4).

As for the fashionability of Franz Xaver Winterhalter’s portrait of Marie Henriette (Fig. 7). It is safe to say that her evening ensemble is within the acceptable parameters of fashion at that time. The most telling detail that classifies it as “fashionable” is the silhouette of the dress, with its slim waist and full skirt, achieved with a corset and a crinoline. The exposure of the décolleté are is also considered fashionable during the 1860s. The color and material too, falls within fashionable propriety, emphasizing her youth with white and the lightness of the fabric used.

Marie-Henriette, Duchesse de Brabant (1836-1902), née Archduchess of Austria, Princess Palatine of Hungary

Fig. 7 - Franz Xaver Winterhalter (German, 1805-1873). Marie-Henriette, Duchesse de Brabant (1836-1902), née Archduchess of Austria, Princess Palatine of Hungary, 1863. Oil on canvas; 157 cm x 106 cm (62 x 42 in). Laeken: Royal Collection, Castle of Laeken. Source: Wikimedia

Portrait of Lady Middleton

Fig. 8 - Franz Xaver Winterhalter (German, 1805-1873). Portrait of Lady Middleton, 1863. Oil on canvas; 239 x 147.5 cm. Private Collection. Source: Wiki Art

Portrait of Queen Sophie of Netherlands, Born Sophie of Württemberg

Fig. 9 - Franz Xaver Winterhalter (German, 1805-1873). Portrait of Queen Sophie of Netherlands, Born Sophie of Württemberg, 1863. Oil on canvas. Private Collection. Source: Wiki Art

Madame Camille Silvy

Fig. 10 - Camille Silvy (French, 1834-1910). Madame Camille Silvy, ca. 1863. Albumen silver print; 8.9 × 6 cm (3 1/2 × 2 3/8 in). Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 93.XD.29.2. Gift in memory of Madame Camille Silvy born Alice Monnier from the Monnier Family. Source: Getty

Woman In Bridal Gown And Women In Formal dress

Fig. 11 - Artist unknown. Woman In Bridal Gown And Women In Formal dress, 1863. Print; 20 x 27 cm (7 3/4 x 10 1/2 in). New York: The New York Public Library Digital Collections. Source: NYPL

Wedding ensemble

Fig. 12 - Designer unknown (French). Wedding ensemble, 1864. Cotton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 26.250.2a–e. Gift of Mrs. James Sullivan, in memory of Mrs. Luman Reed, 1926. Source: The Met

Menswear

[To come…]

Self-portrait

Fig. 1 - Camille Silvy (French, 1834-1910). Self-portrait, about 1863. Albumen silver print, card photograph; 8.6 × 5.7 cm (3 3/8 × 2 1/4 in). Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 93.XD.29.1. Gift in memory of Madame Camille Silvy born Alice Monnier from the Monnier Family. Source: Getty

Luncheon on the Grass

Fig. 2 - Edouard Manet (French, 1832-1883). Luncheon on the Grass, 1863. Oil on canvas; 208 x 264.5 cm. Paris: Musée d'Orsay. Etienne Moreau Nélaton donation, 1906. Source: Musée d'Orsay

Illustrated almanac of fashion

Fig. 3 - Charles Stokes & Co. (Philadelphia) (American). Illustrated almanac of fashion, 1863. Winterthur: Winterthur Museum Library. Source: US National Archive

Illustrated almanac of fashion

Fig. 4 - Charles Stokes & Co. (Philadelphia) (American). Illustrated almanac of fashion, 1863. Winterthur: Winterthur Museum Library. Source: US National Archive

Military uniform

Fig. 5 - A. P. Rego (Portuguese). Military uniform, ca. 1863. Woll, metal, leather. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.2453a–e. Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009; Gift of Mrs. William Reeves, 1957. Source: The Met

CHILDREN’S WEAR

Dress

Fig. 1 - Designer unknown (American). Dress, 1860–69. Cotton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.934. Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009; Gift of The Jason and Peggy Westerfield Collection, 1969. Source: The Met

Rebecca, Charley and Rosa, Slave Children from New Orleans

Fig. 2 - Myron H. Kimball (American). Rebecca, Charley and Rosa, Slave Children from New Orleans, 1863-64. Albumen silver print from glass negative; 8.4 x 5.4 cm (3 5/16 x 2 1/8 in). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2011.478. The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation Fund, through Joyce and Robert Menschel, 2011. Source: The Met

Children 1860-1864, Plate 064

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown. Children 1860-1864, Plate 064, 1860-64. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, b17509853. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Met

Portrait of Mlle Brissac

Fig. 4 - William-Adolphe Bouguereau (French, 1825-1905). Portrait of Mlle Brissac, 1863. Oil on canvas; 91 x 71 cm. Private Collection. Source: Wiki Art

References:

Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1863
Rulers:

Europe 1867. Source: Omniatlas

Events:
  • 1863 – Salon des refusés in Paris
  • The department store Au Louvre is renamed Les Grands Magasins du Louvre (Tétart-Vittu 273).
  • First listing of the couturier Émile Pingat (1820–1901) in the Bottin du commerce. A rival to Worth as a designer and as a tastemaker, the dressmaker Pingat, also specializes in outerwear, such as opera coats, jackets, and mantles (Tétart-Vittu 273).

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

Fashion Plate Collections (Digitized)
NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1863. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2085197.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 21–22. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1863. http://books.google.com/books?id=sVLQAAAAMAAJ.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1863. http://books.google.com/books?id=NZ5LAAAAcAAJ.
Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 5–6, 1863. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022690567.
Frank Leslie’s Ten Cent Monthly. Vol. 1–2. Frank Leslie, 1863. http://books.google.com/books?id=a6fPAAAAMAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 66–67. Philadelphia, 1863. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015020057520.
Journal des demoiselles. Vol. 31. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1863. https://books.google.com/books?vid=HARVARD:HN73KC.
La Mode illustrée: journal de la famille. Paris: Firmin-Didot frère, fils et cie, 1863. http://books.google.com/books?id=-xl0bRLQtSwC.
La Sylphide : journal de modes, de littérature, de théâtres et de musique, 1863. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb34444962f/date1863.
Le Follet. London: E. Minister & Son, 1863. http://books.google.com/books?id=dh0GAAAAQAAJ.
Le Journal des coiffeurs : publication des coiffeurs réunis, 1863. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb344436197/date1863.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 1. Paris: Goubaud, 1863. https://books.google.com/books?id=-9NBAAAAcAAJ.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 2. Paris: Goubaud, 1863. https://books.google.com/books?id=_9NBAAAAcAAJ.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 1-2. Paris: Goubaud, 1863. https://books.google.com/books?id=-9NBAAAAcAAJ.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 3-4. Paris: Goubaud, 1863. https://books.google.com/books?id=_9NBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 1. Paris: Aubert, 1863. https://books.google.com/books?id=VsRBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 2. Paris: Aubert, 1863. https://books.google.com/books?id=gsRBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 3. Paris: Aubert, 1863. https://books.google.com/books?id=jMRBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 4. Paris: Aubert, 1863. https://books.google.com/books?id=g9NBAAAAcAAJ.
M’me Demorest’s Quarterly Report and Mirror of Fashion. Vol. 4, 1863. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nnc2.ark:/13960/t3225cc09.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 43–44. C.J. Peterson, 1863. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/njp.32101076519949.
The Ladies’ Companion. Vol. 23. London: Rogerson and Tuxford, 1863. http://books.google.com/books?id=2rQRAAAAYAAJ.
The What-Not; or Ladies’ Handy-Book. London: Kent and Co., 1863. http://books.google.com/books?id=21YEAAAAQAAJ.
Victoria : illustrirte Muster- und Moden-Zeitung. Berlin: Victoria-Verl., 1863. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Abell, L. G. Woman in Her Various Relations: Containing Practical Rules for American Females. New York: Hubbard & Burgess, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100192096.
Aster, Jane. The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances, Nice Points of Taste and Good Manners, and the Art of Making One’s-Self Agreeable. The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments, Remarks on the History and Changes of Fashion, and the Differences of English and Continental Etiquette. New York: Carleton, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676290.
Cox, Sydney. Friendly Counsel for Girls, or, Words in Season. Words in Season. New York: G. W. Carlton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011538429.
D., and D. [from old catalog] C. The Matter of Manner. Sudbury: H. S. Pratt, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100138761.
Fox, George Patrick. [from old catalog]. Fashion. New York, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009597581.
France. Cérémonial. Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008404138.
Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell. Manners: Or, Happy Homes and Good Society All the Year Round. Boston: J. E. Tilton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011563026.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette: And Manual of Politeness: A Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society: Containing Full Directions for Correct Manners, Dress, Deportment, and Conversation ... and Also Useful Receipts for the Complexion, Hair, and with Hints and Directions for the Care of the Wardrobe ... Boston: G. W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777142.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness ; a Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society. Boston: G.W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100685756.
Leslie, Eliza. The Ladies’ Guide to True Politeness and Perfect Manners: Or, Miss Leslie’s Behaviour Book, a Guide and Manual for Ladies ... Philadelphia: B. Peterson, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100165382.
Merten, Heinrich. Modernes Komplimentirbuch; Oder, Die Quintessenz Des Anstades Und Der Eleganz. Ein Unentbehrlicher Rathgeber Für Personen Beiderlei Geschlechts. Reutlingen: Fleischauer und Spohn, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008679336.
Routledge’s Manual of Etiquette. London ; New York: Routledge, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007672052.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances. New York: Rudd & Carleton, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011159230.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen...The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments. New York: Carleton, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676292.
Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

Online
“Bloomsbury Fashion Central - Berg Fashion Library,” n.d. https://www.bloomsburyfashioncentral.com/products/berg-fashion-library.
Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
“Chronology.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
“Costume Institute Fashion Plates.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/p15324coll12.
“Der Bazar - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2083461.
“Fashion Timeline: 1860 To 1870.” Vintage Fashion Guild, n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1860-to-1870/.
“Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion.” Accessed May 7, 2018. https://books.google.com/books?id=tCIGAAAAQAAJ&source=gbs_similarbooks.
“Hemeroteca Digital. Biblioteca Nacional de España.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://hemerotecadigital.bne.es/results.vm?a=4782809&t=%2Bcreation&l=600&l=700&s=0&y=1868&lang=en.
“History of Fashion 1840 - 1900.” Victoria and Albert Museum, July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
Cook, Michael. “Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition and History,” January 1, 2003. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1868.
“Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion.” Victoria and Albert Museum, January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
“Victoria - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
“Victorian Era: The Crinoline Period (1850-1869).” History of Fashion and Dress, n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/belleepoque.html.
Books/Articles
Acton, William R. Acton’s Improved System of Actual Measurement. [New York, De Vries & Wood, printers], 1867. http://archive.org/details/actonsimprovedsy00acto.
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, ed. A Visual History of Costume. London : Batsford ; New York: Drama Book Publishers, 1983.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Boucher, François. Paris, Miroir de La Mode: Crinolines et Calèches, 1855-1867. Paris: Éditions Rombaldi, 1959. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/438804700.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brockaway, W. [from old catalog. The Great Balance-Measure System, for Cutting Coats, Vests, Pants, Cloaks, and Shirts. New York, Baker & Godwin, printers, 1864. http://archive.org/details/greatbalancemeas01broc.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Brundage, William W. [from old catalog. A Complete System of Cutting. [New York, Printed by A. Marrer], 1867. http://archive.org/details/completesystemof00brun.
Cole, Luman E. [from old catalog. The Tailors’ Guide: Containing Systems of Draughting Frock and Sack Coats, Pants, Vests and Shirts, with Valuable Improvements, Warranted Superior to Anything Ever Offered to the Trade. Milwaukee, Stan & son, book and job printers, 1868. http://archive.org/details/tailorsguidecont00cole.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
De Young, Justine. “‘Housewife or Harlot’: Art, Fashion & Morality in the Paris Salon of 1868.” In Cultures of Femininity in Modern Fashion, edited by Ilya Parkins and Elizabeth M. Sheehan, 124–47. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire Press, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/823388661.
De Young, Justine. “Fashion and the Press.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 233–43. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Dolan, Therese. “The Empress’s New Clothes: Fashion and Politics in Second Empire France.” Woman’s Art Journal, Spring 1994, 22–28. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1358491.
Dolan, Therese. “Skirting the Issue: Manet’s Portrait of Baudelaire’s Mistress, Reclining.” The Art Bulletin 79, no. 4 (December 1997). http://www.jstor.org/stable/3046278.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Glencross, William [from old catalog. Manual; New York, W. Glencross, 1866. http://archive.org/details/manual00glen.
Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hambourg, Maria Morris. Nadar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851034965.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
Lambert, Miles. Fashion in Photographs 1860-1880. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300306371.
Lansdell, Avril. Fashion à La Carte, 1860-1900: A Study of Fashion through Cartes-de-Visite. History in Camera. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/436041340.
Leisch, Juanita. Who Wore What?: Women’s Wear, 1861-1865. Gettysburg: Thomas Publications, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33070937.
MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Grace Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Samuel Sachs. Whistler, Women, & Fashion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/757386204.
Maeder, Edward, and Evelyn Ackerman, eds. Dressed for the Country, 1860-1900: Exhibition. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/562356615.
Matyjaszkiewicz, Krystyna. “Costume in Tissot’s Pictures.” In James Tissot, 64–77. Oxford: Phaidon, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630471252.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “Photography, Fashion, and the Cult of Appearances.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 197–207. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
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