OVERVIEW

In 1865 the shape of the crinoline had shifted—flattening in the front, with greater fullness in the back. Blue, neutral, and striped fabrics were quite popular and often accented with contrasting trimmings.

Womenswear

The year 1865 was a time still within the reign of the crinoline skirt. Sara Josepha Hale wrote in Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine (February 1865): “We are constantly questioned on the subject of crinoline—and frequently hear of its downfall, we see no diminution of it either in our late fashion plates, or in the promenades” (198). Le Follet writes similarly in April 1865: “The enemies of crinoline will yet have some time to wait before their ideas triumph. Skirts are made with as much train and as full as ever, and must have well-made crinolines to give them an air of elegance” (1). As Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell summed up in the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion (West Europe): “By the 1860s, the crinoline was elliptical, with a train, as it flattened in front and the bulk shifted to the back.” We can see evidence of crinolines in all the images as well as of the changed shape with a flatter front and longer back, especially in Fig. 4. In Fig. 11 it is very easy to see how much longer the skirt is in the back than in the front.

Dress

Fig. 1 - Designer unknown (American). Dress, ca. 1865. Silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.69.33.8a. Gift of Mary Pierrepont Beckwith, 1969. Source: The Met

Dress

Fig. 2 - Designer unknown (American). Dress, ca. 1865. Cotton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.67.37.1. Gift of Mrs. John W. Mackay, 1967. Source: The Met

Lunch on the Grass

Fig. 3 - Claude Monet (French, 1840-1926). Lunch on the Grass, 1865-66. Oil on canvas; 248.7 x 218 cm. Paris: Musée d'Orsay, RF 1987 12. Source: Musée d'Orsay

Bazille and Camille

Fig. 4 - Claude Monet (French, 1840-1926). Bazille and Camille, 1865. Oil on canvas; 93 x 68.9 cm (36 5/8 x 27 1/8 in). Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1970.17.41. Ailsa Mellon Bruce Collection. Source: NGA

Peterson's Magazine, Les Modes Parisiennes

Fig. 5 - Artist unknown. Peterson's Magazine, Les Modes Parisiennes, November 1865. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Met

Color-wise, blue was a very popular color (Figs. 3, 4, 7, 12, 13). Le Follet writes in June 1865: “Plain light corn-flower blue appears to be the shade most in favor for foulard this season – either quite plain, or spotted with black spots, or striped with very fine black lines” (1). Neutral colors like those in Figs. 1, 2, 8, and 9 were also at a height of fashion. Le Follet wrote in March 1865: “there is no double that quite plain shades … will be the most in vogue” (1). Along with these two basic colors, contrasting bright trimmings were also very popular (Figs. 2, 5, 7, 13), as Le Follet wrote in June 1865: “The rage for bright trimmings is as great as ever” (1).

Louis Revoil

Fig. 6 - André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri (French, 1819-1889). Louis Revoil, February 1865–75. Albumen silver print from glass negative; 19.5 × 24.5 cm (7 11/16 × 9 5/8 in). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005.100.588.6. Gilman Collection, Gift of The Howard Gilman Foundation, 2005. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Princess Pauline Metternich (1836–1921) on the Beach

Fig. 7 - Eugène Boudin (French, 1824–1898). Princess Pauline Metternich (1836–1921) on the Beach, ca. 1865–67. Oil on cardboard, laid down on wood; 29.5 x 23.5 cm (11 5/8 x 9 1/4 in). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999.288.1. The Walter H. and Leonore Annenberg Collection, Gift of Walter H. and Leonore Annenberg, 1999, Bequest of Walter H. Annenberg, 2002. Source: The Met

Evening dress

Fig. 8 - Designer unknown (American). Evening dress, 1865. Silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.6595. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009; Gift of Mrs. Harry Merrill, 1949. Source: The Met

Dress

Fig. 9 - Designer unknown (French). Dress, 1865. Silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.69.33.11a–f. Gift of Mary Pierrepont Beckwith, 1969. Source: The Met

Ensemble

Fig. 10 - Designer unknown (British). Ensemble, ca. 1865. Silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983.27.1a–d. 1983.27.1a–d. Source: The Met

M

any of the dresses of the time also involved vertically striped fabric, such as the dresses in figures 6, 9, 10, and 11. Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine editor Sara Josepha Hale remarked on this in February 1865 saying:

“Beside the dress goods we have mentioned, are striped silk, broad satin and silk stripes woven alternately also embroidered silks, a large bouquet or design in each breadth. Some are elegantly and elaborately embroidered with jet beads and bugles. For evening wear, there are very rich satins striped with velvet.” (198)

Besides the classic silk for dresses, there was also an increase in the number of softer, more delicate fabrics used. There is evidence of this different fabrication in figures 1 and 2. Frank Leslie’s Lady’s Magazine and Gazette of Fashion reported in August 1865: “Light dresses of thin costly materials are to be seen more frequently than in former seasons, and are more expensively trimmed than ever” (89).

Looking at the dresses pictured, there are obvious similarities in silhouette apart from the crinoline skirt. For evening dresses, many of the necklines were very wide and off-the-shoulder with only very slight sleeves (Figs. 8-12, 13). This is different from the day dresses which had very high necklines and long semi-fitted sleeves (Figs. 1-7). Many of the dresses are belted at the waist (Figs. 1, 2, 5, 6, 9-11) and some bodices had pointed bottoms at center front, mostly in evening wear (Figs. 8, 10).

The dress painted in William Morris Hunt’s Olivia Buckminster Lothrop (Fig. 14) is well within the range of popular fashion for the 1865 woman. The skirt has the classic mid-1860s crinoline shape with the fullness slightly shifted to the back, characteristic of 1865. The bodice has the typical buttoned front and high neck of day dresses, with the long semi-fitted sleeves. The trim, belted sash, and bits of lace are also elements that are consistent with those popular in the year 1865.

Evening dress

Fig. 11 - Designer unknown (British). Evening dress, ca. 1865. Silk (probably), glass. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2008.304a–c. Purchase, Allison Sarofim Gift, 2008. Source: The Met

Peterson's Magazine, Les Modes Parisiennes

Fig. 12 - Artist unknown. Peterson's Magazine, Les Modes Parisiennes, October 1865. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Met

La Mode Illustree, issue no 2

Fig. 13 - Artist unknown. La Mode Illustree, issue no 2, January 15, 1865. Source: Google Books

Olivia Buckminster Lothrop (Mrs. Lewis William Tappan, Jr.)

Fig. 14 - William Morris Hunt (American, 1824-1879). Olivia Buckminster Lothrop (Mrs. Lewis William Tappan, Jr.), mid–1860s. Oil on canvas; 158.8 x 84.5 cm (62 1/2 x 33 1/4 in). Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 27.457. Source: Museum of Fine Arts Boston

Menswear

[To come…]

Gentleman’s Magazine of Fashion. Plate 2.

Fig. 1 - Anonymous. Gentleman’s Magazine of Fashion. Plate 2., 1865. Private Collection. Source: Puddletown Bookshop

Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie

Fig. 2 - André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri (French, 1819-1889). Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie, ca. 1865. Albumen silver print; 9.5 x 6 cm (3 3/4 x 2 3/8 in). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 67.580.4.4. Gift of A. Hyatt Mayor, 1967. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Auguste Marc BAYEUX 1865; Francois BAZIN Composer 1865; BEAUVALLET 1865; Roger de BEAUVOIR 1865

Fig. 3 - Etienne Carjat (French, 1828-1906). Auguste Marc BAYEUX 1865; Francois BAZIN Composer 1865; BEAUVALLET 1865; Roger de BEAUVOIR 1865, 1865. Paris: Bibliotheque nationale de France. Source: Bibliotheque nationale de France

Self-Portrait

Fig. 4 - Edgar Degas (French, 1834-1917). Self-Portrait, 1865. Oil on canvas; 92.5 x 66.5 cm. Lisbon: Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, 2307. Jeanne Fèvre, niece of the artist, Nice. Acquired by Calouste Gulbenkian through André Weil in Paris on 28 October 1937. Source: Museu Calouste Gulbenkian

CHILDREN’S WEAR

Ensemble

Fig. 1 - Designer unknown (probably American). Ensemble, ca. 1865. Linen, cotton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1981.210.2a, b. Catharine Breyer Van Bomel Foundation Fund, 1981. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Women 1865, Plate 085

Fig. 2 - Laure Nöel (French, 1826-1878). Women 1865, Plate 085, 1865. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Met

Princess Beatrice, 1865 [in Portraits of Royal Children Vol.9 1865]

Fig. 3 - Jabez Hughes (English, 1819-1884). Princess Beatrice, 1865 [in Portraits of Royal Children Vol.9 1865], April 1865. Carbon print; 9.2 x 6.7 cm. London: Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 2901194. Source: Royal Collection Trust

Journal des Demoiselles

Fig. 4 - Artist unknown (French). Journal des Demoiselles, December 1865. Hand-colored engraving. New York: FIT Library Special Collections and College Archives, Figure 104-US.NNFIT.SC.AP20.J76.1865. Source: FITDIL

References:

Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1865
Rulers:

Europe 1867. Source: Omniatlas

Events:
  • April 14 – Abraham Lincoln assassinated (Wikipedia)
  • May 9 – End of the American Civil War (Wikipedia)
  • May 11 – “Jules Jaluzot (1834–1916) launches the department store Au Printemps at the corner of boulevard Haussmann and the rue de Provence (fig. 8). He is the first to sell an exclusive black silk for dresses known paradoxically as ‘Marie-Blanche.'” (Tétart-Vittu 273)

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

Fashion Plate Collections (Digitized)
NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1865. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2164443.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 25–26. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1865. http://books.google.com/books?id=iUA9AQAAMAAJ.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1865. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2982539.
Frank Leslie’s Monthly. Vol. 17. Frank Leslie, 1865. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433103958397.
Gazlay’s Pacific Monthly. Vol. 1. D. M. Gazlay, 1865. http://books.google.com/books?id=j_QRAAAAYAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 70–71. Philadelphia, 1865. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015004111103.
Journal des demoiselles. Vol. 33. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1865. https://books.google.com/books?vid=HARVARD:HN73J7.
La Mode illustrée: journal de la famille. Paris: Firmin-Didot frère, fils et cie, 1865. http://books.google.com/books?id=dswVkfsF9ggC.
La Sylphide : journal de modes, de littérature, de théâtres et de musique. Paris: [s.n.], 1865. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k146608p.
Le Follet. London: E. Minister & Son, 1865. http://books.google.com/books?id=dh0GAAAAQAAJ.
Le Journal des coiffeurs : publication des coiffeurs réunis, 1865. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb344436197/date.r=mode.langEN.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 4. Paris: Goubaud, 1865. http://books.google.com/books?id=XMZBAAAAcAAJ.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 2. Paris: Goubaud, 1865. https://books.google.com/books?id=e8ZBAAAAcAAJ.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. Paris: Goubaud, 1865. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2089865.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 2. Paris: Goubaud, 1865. https://books.google.com/books?id=e8ZBAAAAcAAJ.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 1. Paris: Goubaud, 1865. https://books.google.com/books?id=XMZBAAAAcAAJ.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 3-4. Paris: Goubaud, 1865. https://books.google.com/books?id=e8ZBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 1. Paris: Aubert, 1865. https://books.google.com/books?id=mcRBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 2. Paris: Aubert, 1865. https://books.google.com/books?id=ocRBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 3. Paris: Aubert, 1865. https://books.google.com/books?id=ucRBAAAAcAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 47–48. C.J. Peterson, 1865. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/njp.32101076519964.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 47–48. C.J. Peterson, 1865. http://books.google.com/books?id=OKFHAAAAYAAJ.
The Ladies’ Companion. Vol. 27. London: Rogerson and Tuxford, 1865. http://books.google.com/books?id=u7URAAAAYAAJ.
Victoria : illustrirte Muster- und Moden-Zeitung. Berlin: Victoria-Verl., 1865. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Abell, L. G. Woman in Her Various Relations: Containing Practical Rules for American Females. New York: Hubbard & Burgess, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100192096.
Aster, Jane. The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances, Nice Points of Taste and Good Manners, and the Art of Making One’s-Self Agreeable. The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments, Remarks on the History and Changes of Fashion, and the Differences of English and Continental Etiquette. New York: Carleton, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676290.
Cox, Sydney. Friendly Counsel for Girls, or, Words in Season. Words in Season. New York: G. W. Carlton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011538429.
D., and D. [from old catalog] C. The Matter of Manner. Sudbury: H. S. Pratt, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100138761.
Fox, George Patrick. [from old catalog]. Fashion. New York, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009597581.
France. Cérémonial. Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008404138.
Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell. Manners: Or, Happy Homes and Good Society All the Year Round. Boston: J. E. Tilton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011563026.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette: And Manual of Politeness: A Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society: Containing Full Directions for Correct Manners, Dress, Deportment, and Conversation ... and Also Useful Receipts for the Complexion, Hair, and with Hints and Directions for the Care of the Wardrobe ... Boston: G. W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777142.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness ; a Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society. Boston: G.W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100685756.
Leslie, Eliza. The Ladies’ Guide to True Politeness and Perfect Manners: Or, Miss Leslie’s Behaviour Book, a Guide and Manual for Ladies ... Philadelphia: B. Peterson, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100165382.
Merten, Heinrich. Modernes Komplimentirbuch; Oder, Die Quintessenz Des Anstades Und Der Eleganz. Ein Unentbehrlicher Rathgeber Für Personen Beiderlei Geschlechts. Reutlingen: Fleischauer und Spohn, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008679336.
Routledge’s Manual of Etiquette. London ; New York: Routledge, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007672052.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances. New York: Rudd & Carleton, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011159230.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen...The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments. New York: Carleton, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676292.
Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

Online
“Bloomsbury Fashion Central - Berg Fashion Library,” n.d. https://www.bloomsburyfashioncentral.com/products/berg-fashion-library.
Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
“Chronology.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
“Costume Institute Fashion Plates.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/p15324coll12.
“Der Bazar - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2083461.
“Fashion Timeline: 1860 To 1870.” Vintage Fashion Guild, n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1860-to-1870/.
“Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion.” Accessed May 7, 2018. https://books.google.com/books?id=tCIGAAAAQAAJ&source=gbs_similarbooks.
“Hemeroteca Digital. Biblioteca Nacional de España.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://hemerotecadigital.bne.es/results.vm?a=4782809&t=%2Bcreation&l=600&l=700&s=0&y=1868&lang=en.
“History of Fashion 1840 - 1900.” Victoria and Albert Museum, July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
Cook, Michael. “Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition and History,” January 1, 2003. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1868.
“Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion.” Victoria and Albert Museum, January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
“Victoria - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
“Victorian Era: The Crinoline Period (1850-1869).” History of Fashion and Dress, n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/belleepoque.html.
Books/Articles
Acton, William R. Acton’s Improved System of Actual Measurement. [New York, De Vries & Wood, printers], 1867. http://archive.org/details/actonsimprovedsy00acto.
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, ed. A Visual History of Costume. London : Batsford ; New York: Drama Book Publishers, 1983.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Boucher, François. Paris, Miroir de La Mode: Crinolines et Calèches, 1855-1867. Paris: Éditions Rombaldi, 1959. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/438804700.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brockaway, W. [from old catalog. The Great Balance-Measure System, for Cutting Coats, Vests, Pants, Cloaks, and Shirts. New York, Baker & Godwin, printers, 1864. http://archive.org/details/greatbalancemeas01broc.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Brundage, William W. [from old catalog. A Complete System of Cutting. [New York, Printed by A. Marrer], 1867. http://archive.org/details/completesystemof00brun.
Cole, Luman E. [from old catalog. The Tailors’ Guide: Containing Systems of Draughting Frock and Sack Coats, Pants, Vests and Shirts, with Valuable Improvements, Warranted Superior to Anything Ever Offered to the Trade. Milwaukee, Stan & son, book and job printers, 1868. http://archive.org/details/tailorsguidecont00cole.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
De Young, Justine. “‘Housewife or Harlot’: Art, Fashion & Morality in the Paris Salon of 1868.” In Cultures of Femininity in Modern Fashion, edited by Ilya Parkins and Elizabeth M. Sheehan, 124–47. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire Press, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/823388661.
De Young, Justine. “Fashion and the Press.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 233–43. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Dolan, Therese. “The Empress’s New Clothes: Fashion and Politics in Second Empire France.” Woman’s Art Journal, Spring 1994, 22–28. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1358491.
Dolan, Therese. “Skirting the Issue: Manet’s Portrait of Baudelaire’s Mistress, Reclining.” The Art Bulletin 79, no. 4 (December 1997). http://www.jstor.org/stable/3046278.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Glencross, William [from old catalog. Manual; New York, W. Glencross, 1866. http://archive.org/details/manual00glen.
Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hambourg, Maria Morris. Nadar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851034965.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
Lambert, Miles. Fashion in Photographs 1860-1880. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300306371.
Lansdell, Avril. Fashion à La Carte, 1860-1900: A Study of Fashion through Cartes-de-Visite. History in Camera. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/436041340.
Leisch, Juanita. Who Wore What?: Women’s Wear, 1861-1865. Gettysburg: Thomas Publications, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33070937.
MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Grace Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Samuel Sachs. Whistler, Women, & Fashion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/757386204.
Maeder, Edward, and Evelyn Ackerman, eds. Dressed for the Country, 1860-1900: Exhibition. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/562356615.
Matyjaszkiewicz, Krystyna. “Costume in Tissot’s Pictures.” In James Tissot, 64–77. Oxford: Phaidon, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630471252.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “Photography, Fashion, and the Cult of Appearances.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 197–207. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
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Nead, Lynda. “The Layering of Pleasure: Women, Fashionable Dress and Visual Culture in the Mid-Nineteenth Century.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 35, no. 5 (2013): 489–509.
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