OVERVIEW

In 1866 belted dresses became quite fashionable—replacing the pointed bodices previously en vogue. Ribbon trimmings were preferred to artificial flowers.

Womenswear

A

lfred Stevens’ La Dame en Rose (Fig. 1) shows a woman wearing a fashionable dress of the time. The garment has elaborate tiered lace trimmings on the skirts, collar, sleeves, and shoulder seams. It also has a ceinture at the waist to accentuate the wearer’s figure, rounded shoulders, and a slight train. The fabric is a light pale pink and while there are no bright ribbons to offset the pale fabric, the garment can still be described as fashionable. The wearer is showing her stylishness by choosing a select number of trends to wear rather than putting them all on her dress at once.

Several changes in the popular style of dress for 1866 are noted in the January issue of The World of Fashion. First it points to the adoption of round waists with a ceinture, or belt–a shift from the previously popular pointed waist lines. Another notable change is the abandonment of flowers used as trimmings in ball dresses, which are  now used scantily, if at all (Fig. 6). Instead fashionable women of the time turned to “ribbons in bands, in bows, and in rûches, and lace both black and white,” to adorn their evening gowns (4).

The Lady in Pink

Fig. 1 - Alfred Stevens (Belgian, 1823-1906). The Lady in Pink, 1866. Oil on canvas; 87 x 57 cm. Brussels: Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, 1793. Purchased 1866. Source: Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium

Women in the Garden

Fig. 2 - Claude Monet (French, 1840-1926). Women in the Garden, 1866. Oil on canvas; 255 x 205 cm. Paris: Musée d'Orsay, RF 2773, LUX 1360. Source: Musée d'Orsay

Camille, or The Woman in the Green dress

Fig. 3 - Claude Monet (French, 1840-1926). Camille, or The Woman in the Green dress, 1866. Oil on canvas; 231 x 150 cm (90.9 × 59.4 in). Bremen: Kunsthalle Bremen, 298-1906/1. Source: Wikimedia

Dress with Green and Black Stripes

Fig. 4 - Designer unknown. Dress with Green and Black Stripes, 1866. Silk and velvet trim. Private Collection. Source: Extant Gowns

La Mode Illustrée

Fig. 5 - Artist unknown. La Mode Illustrée, vol. 7, no. 42 (October 1866). Source: Google Books

A

nother popular style are dresses with double skirts; the under skirt is commonly made out of silk due to the fabric’s lightness and breathability. The sleeves of these dresses are cut straight with ornamentation on the shoulders and wrists, the seams do not sit directly on the shoulders but slope slightly off the shoulder to create a rounded silhouette (Fig. 4).

It should be noted that by the end of the year crinolines had gradually been removed from fashion. The November issue of The World of Fashion noted:

“The tendency is, gradually to reduce the size both in length and width, and in consequence the crinoline or steel jupon, can at last be discontinued… For the width: skirts are always gored, so as the be without fullness at the front and sides, and many are even made without fullness at the back; others have large plaits at this part, especially those skirts that are made with trains.” (1)

The most popular piece of outer wear is the paletot. This jacket is military-inspired, fitted at the waist and flairs out to follow the shape of the dress, it is often cropped mid-thigh (Fig. 3). The November issue of Peterson’s Magazine notes:

“Paletots are worn in velvet, cloth, and plush; the latter is the most fashionable, and admit of but little trimming. Velvets are embroidered with silk and beads. The leaders of the fashions are trying very hard to introduce colored velvet cloaks.” (362)

Day dress

Fig. 6 - Designer unknown. Day dress, 1866. Kyoto: The Kyoto Costume Institute, AC4324 82-17-43AE. Source: The Kyoto Costume Institute

Princess Alexandra of Denmark

Fig. 7 - André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri (French, 1819-1899). Princess Alexandra of Denmark, ca. 1866. Photograph. Private Collection. Source: Pinterest

La Mode Illustrée

Fig. 8 - Artist unknown. La Mode Illustrée, vol. 7, no. 33 (August 1866). Source: Google Books

The World of Fashion

Fig. 9 - Artist unknown. The World of Fashion, vol. 42, no. 507 (March 1866). Source: Google Books

Orange Evening Gown with White Embroidery

Fig. 10 - Charles Frederick Worth (English, 1825-1895). Orange Evening Gown with White Embroidery, 1864-66. Silk faille. Kent State University Museum, 1983.001.1058 a-c. Silverman/Rodgers Collection. Source: Kent State

Tsaritsa Maria Feodorovna of Russia in Engagement Jewels

Fig. 11 - Photographer unknown. Tsaritsa Maria Feodorovna of Russia in Engagement Jewels, ca. 1866. Source: Pinterest

T

hese evening dresses are constructed out of satin or silk, usually a combination of white with pale blue, yellow, pink, or pastel green. It is the most common to see them without sleeves and with an off-the-shoulder cut (Fig. 7). The gowns are distinguishable in this period due to their intricate design work and ornamentation. Popular design elements include ruching, gathering, appliqués, and embroidery. The volume in the skirt is slightly concentrated in the back. The London and Paris Ladies’ Magazine of Fashion observes in its May 1866 issue:

“Crinolines in moderation continue firmly to withstand the attempts made to discard them; in fact, there is nothing perfect for giving an amplitude which is absolutely necessary to a handsome dress, leaving out the fact that it’s the cheapest substitute for an endless number of stiffened petticoats, whose brilliancy is likely to become dimmed by any passing shower.” (51)

As the year progressed The World of Fashion noted in April a new design, the Princess Robe growing in popularity, this is characterized by the lack of a seam at the waist with less fullness in the hip area but stayed consistent with the presence of a train and full back (4).

For promenade wear the upper skirts of the women’s dresses are looped up with cords to show the petticoats; due to their exposure the petticoats are made using the same fabric or a complementary fabric as the upper skirts. The dresses are typically blue, gray, pink, white, or black though most vibrant colors are considered novel. The dresses are trimmed with complementary ribbons and lace. The most common print is stripes, followed by plaid. In May 1866The World of Fashion notes that the length of the skirts are cut to display the boots worn underneath (4).

Evening Gown

Fig. 12 - Madame Olympe (American, born France). Evening Gown, ca. 1866. Silk, glass, synthetic. Los Angeles: FIDM Museum, 2007.893.1AB. Gift of Cathy Gordon. Source: FIDM Museum

Menswear

[To come…]

Gazette of Fashion

Fig. 1 - Artist unknown. Gazette of Fashion, vol. 20, no. 237 (Jan 1, 1866). Source: Google Books

Dr. Samuel Jean de Pozzi

Fig. 2 - Nadar (French, 1820-1910). Dr. Samuel Jean de Pozzi, 1866. Photograph. Private Collection. Source: MarcelProust

Gazette of Fashion

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown. Gazette of Fashion, vol. 20, no. 239 (March 1, 1866). Source: Google Books

Gazette of Fashion

Fig. 4 - Artist unknown. Gazette of Fashion, volume 21 Issue 241 (May 1, 1866). Private Collection. Source: Google Books

CHILDREN’S WEAR

Princess Beatrice, November 1866 [in Portraits of Royal Children Vol.10 1866-67]

Fig. 1 - André Adolfe Eugène Disdéri (French, 1819-1889). Princess Beatrice, November 1866 [in Portraits of Royal Children Vol.10 1866-67], November 1866. Carbon print; 8.5 x 5.5 cm. London: The Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 2901574. Source: The Royal Collection Trust

The Minuet

Fig. 2 - Sir John Everett Millais (British, 1829-1896). The Minuet, 1866. Watercolor; 10 x 25.5 cm (3 15/16 x 10 1/16 in). Los Angeles: Bonhams. Source: Bonhams

The World of Fashion

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown. The World of Fashion, vol. 42, no. 507 (March 1866). Source: Google Books

The Ladies Gazette of Fashion

Fig. 4 - Artist unknown. The Ladies Gazette of Fashion, October 1866. Source: Google Books

References:

Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1866
Rulers:

Europe 1866. Source: Omniatlas

Events:
  • The Austro-Prussian war begins (June 14)
  • The Austro-Prussian war ends with the signing of the Treaty of Prague. (August 23)
  • Austria is separated from Germany and is reorganized as the Austro-Hungarian Empire after the Austro-Prussian War. (The Met)
  • “Jules Chéret (1836–1932) popularizes a technique of color lithography that marks the rise of the modern advertising poster.” (The Met)

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

Fashion Plate Collections (Digitized)
NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1866. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2109872.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 27–28. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1866. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074624670.
Bow Bells. Vol. 5. London: John Dicks, 1866. https://books.google.com/books?id=d80aAQAAMAAJ.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1866. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2969337.
Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. Vol. 1, 1866. http://books.google.com/books?id=sBwGAAAAQAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 72–73. Philadelphia, 1866. https://hdl.handle.net/2027/nyp.33433081675567.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 72. Philadelphia, 1866. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433081675567.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 73. Philadelphia, 1866. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015027389397.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 72. Philadelphia, 1866. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015027389405.
Journal des demoiselles. Vol. 34. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1866. https://books.google.com/books?vid=HARVARD:HN73JS.
La Mode illustrée: journal de la famille. Paris: Firmin-Didot frère, fils et cie, 1866. http://books.google.com/books?id=fztEKs2j0NUC.
La Sylphide : journal de modes, de littérature, de théâtres et de musique, 1866. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb34444962f/date1866.
Le Journal des coiffeurs : publication des coiffeurs réunis, 1866. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb344436197/date1866.
Le Journal des marchandes de modes : revue spéciale des chapeaux, bonnets, coiffures et lingeries. Paris, 1866. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb32800020n/date1866.r=.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 2. Paris: Goubaud, 1866. https://books.google.com/books?id=tMZBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 2. Paris: Aubert, 1866. https://books.google.com/books?id=28RBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 1. Paris: Aubert, 1866. https://books.google.com/books?id=zcRBAAAAcAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 49–50. C.J. Peterson, 1866. http://books.google.com/books?id=3ZHNAAAAMAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 49–50. C.J. Peterson, 1866. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101076519972.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 50. C.J. Peterson, 1866. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.32000000716060.
The Illustrated London Magazine. Vol. 21. New Series. London, 1866. http://books.google.com/books?id=RTsFAAAAQAAJ.
The Ladies’ Gazette of Fashion. London: George Berger, 1866. https://books.google.com/books?id=i3IOAAAAQAAJ.
The London and Paris Ladies’ Magazine of Fashion. Vol. 39, 1866. https://books.google.com/books?id=4iEGAAAAQAAJ.
The World of Fashion and Continental Feuilletons [Afterw.] The Ladies’ Monthly Magazine, The World of Fashion [Afterw.] Le Monde Élégant; or The World of Fashion, 1866. https://books.google.com/books?id=SSQGAAAAQAAJ.
Victoria : illustrirte Muster- und Moden-Zeitung. Berlin: Victoria-Verl., 1866. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Abell, L. G. Woman in Her Various Relations: Containing Practical Rules for American Females. New York: Hubbard & Burgess, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100192096.
Aster, Jane. The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances, Nice Points of Taste and Good Manners, and the Art of Making One’s-Self Agreeable. The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments, Remarks on the History and Changes of Fashion, and the Differences of English and Continental Etiquette. New York: Carleton, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676290.
Cox, Sydney. Friendly Counsel for Girls, or, Words in Season. Words in Season. New York: G. W. Carlton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011538429.
D., and D. [from old catalog] C. The Matter of Manner. Sudbury: H. S. Pratt, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100138761.
Fox, George Patrick. [from old catalog]. Fashion. New York, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009597581.
France. Cérémonial. Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008404138.
Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell. Manners: Or, Happy Homes and Good Society All the Year Round. Boston: J. E. Tilton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011563026.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette: And Manual of Politeness: A Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society: Containing Full Directions for Correct Manners, Dress, Deportment, and Conversation ... and Also Useful Receipts for the Complexion, Hair, and with Hints and Directions for the Care of the Wardrobe ... Boston: G. W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777142.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness ; a Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society. Boston: G.W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100685756.
Leslie, Eliza. The Ladies’ Guide to True Politeness and Perfect Manners: Or, Miss Leslie’s Behaviour Book, a Guide and Manual for Ladies ... Philadelphia: B. Peterson, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100165382.
Merten, Heinrich. Modernes Komplimentirbuch; Oder, Die Quintessenz Des Anstades Und Der Eleganz. Ein Unentbehrlicher Rathgeber Für Personen Beiderlei Geschlechts. Reutlingen: Fleischauer und Spohn, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008679336.
Routledge’s Manual of Etiquette. London ; New York: Routledge, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007672052.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances. New York: Rudd & Carleton, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011159230.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen...The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments. New York: Carleton, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676292.
Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion [Afterw.] Minister’s Gazette of Fashion, 1866. https://books.google.com/books?id=lSIGAAAAQAAJ.

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

Online
“Bloomsbury Fashion Central - Berg Fashion Library,” n.d. https://www.bloomsburyfashioncentral.com/products/berg-fashion-library.
Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
“Chronology.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
“Costume Institute Fashion Plates.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/p15324coll12.
“Der Bazar - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2083461.
“Fashion Timeline: 1860 To 1870.” Vintage Fashion Guild, n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1860-to-1870/.
“Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion.” Accessed May 7, 2018. https://books.google.com/books?id=tCIGAAAAQAAJ&source=gbs_similarbooks.
“Hemeroteca Digital. Biblioteca Nacional de España.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://hemerotecadigital.bne.es/results.vm?a=4782809&t=%2Bcreation&l=600&l=700&s=0&y=1868&lang=en.
“History of Fashion 1840 - 1900.” Victoria and Albert Museum, July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
Cook, Michael. “Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition and History,” January 1, 2003. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1868.
“Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion.” Victoria and Albert Museum, January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
“Victoria - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
“Victorian Era: The Crinoline Period (1850-1869).” History of Fashion and Dress, n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/belleepoque.html.
Books/Articles
Acton, William R. Acton’s Improved System of Actual Measurement. [New York, De Vries & Wood, printers], 1867. http://archive.org/details/actonsimprovedsy00acto.
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, ed. A Visual History of Costume. London : Batsford ; New York: Drama Book Publishers, 1983.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Boucher, François. Paris, Miroir de La Mode: Crinolines et Calèches, 1855-1867. Paris: Éditions Rombaldi, 1959. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/438804700.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brockaway, W. [from old catalog. The Great Balance-Measure System, for Cutting Coats, Vests, Pants, Cloaks, and Shirts. New York, Baker & Godwin, printers, 1864. http://archive.org/details/greatbalancemeas01broc.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Brundage, William W. [from old catalog. A Complete System of Cutting. [New York, Printed by A. Marrer], 1867. http://archive.org/details/completesystemof00brun.
Cole, Luman E. [from old catalog. The Tailors’ Guide: Containing Systems of Draughting Frock and Sack Coats, Pants, Vests and Shirts, with Valuable Improvements, Warranted Superior to Anything Ever Offered to the Trade. Milwaukee, Stan & son, book and job printers, 1868. http://archive.org/details/tailorsguidecont00cole.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
De Young, Justine. “‘Housewife or Harlot’: Art, Fashion & Morality in the Paris Salon of 1868.” In Cultures of Femininity in Modern Fashion, edited by Ilya Parkins and Elizabeth M. Sheehan, 124–47. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire Press, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/823388661.
De Young, Justine. “Fashion and the Press.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 233–43. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Dolan, Therese. “The Empress’s New Clothes: Fashion and Politics in Second Empire France.” Woman’s Art Journal, Spring 1994, 22–28. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1358491.
Dolan, Therese. “Skirting the Issue: Manet’s Portrait of Baudelaire’s Mistress, Reclining.” The Art Bulletin 79, no. 4 (December 1997). http://www.jstor.org/stable/3046278.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Glencross, William [from old catalog. Manual; New York, W. Glencross, 1866. http://archive.org/details/manual00glen.
Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hambourg, Maria Morris. Nadar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851034965.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
Lambert, Miles. Fashion in Photographs 1860-1880. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300306371.
Lansdell, Avril. Fashion à La Carte, 1860-1900: A Study of Fashion through Cartes-de-Visite. History in Camera. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/436041340.
Leisch, Juanita. Who Wore What?: Women’s Wear, 1861-1865. Gettysburg: Thomas Publications, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33070937.
MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Grace Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Samuel Sachs. Whistler, Women, & Fashion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/757386204.
Maeder, Edward, and Evelyn Ackerman, eds. Dressed for the Country, 1860-1900: Exhibition. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/562356615.
Matyjaszkiewicz, Krystyna. “Costume in Tissot’s Pictures.” In James Tissot, 64–77. Oxford: Phaidon, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630471252.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “Photography, Fashion, and the Cult of Appearances.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 197–207. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “The Carte de Visite and Portrait Painting during the Second Empire.” In A.A.E. Disdéri and the Carte de Visite Portrait Photograph, 137–203. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/755288192.
Nead, Lynda. “The Layering of Pleasure: Women, Fashionable Dress and Visual Culture in the Mid-Nineteenth Century.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 35, no. 5 (2013): 489–509.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. 80 Godey’s Full-Color Fashion Plates, 1838-1880. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/868271404.
Phyliky, Leonard. The Tailor; New System of Drafting Direct from the Measurement Taken with a Tape Measure, without Any Instrument, for All the Various Forms of the Human Body. New York: T. Holman, 1867. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011213188.
Piazza, Arianna, ed. Fashion 150: 150 Years, 150 Designers. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/961459695.
Ribeiro, Aileen. “The Art of Dress: Fashion in Renoir’s La Loge.” In Renoir at the Theatre: Looking at La Loge, edited by Ernst Vegelin van Claerbergen and Barnaby Wright, 45–63. London: The Courtauld Gallery, 2008. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/938162816.
Roskill, Mark W. “Early Impressionism and the Fashion Print.” The Burlington Magazine 112, no. 807 (June 1970): 390–95. http://www.jstor.org/stable/876343.
Schirrmeister, Anne. “La Dernière Mode: Berthe Morisot and Costume.” In Perspectives on Morisot, edited by T. J. Edelstein, 103–15. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1990. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/463695207.
Severa, Joan L. Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/552147475.
Shep, R. L., and Mark Campbell, eds. Civil War Ladies: Fashions and Needle-Arts of the Early 1860s. Mendocino: R.L. Shep, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794531398.
Simon, Marie. Fashion in Art: The Second Empire and Impressionism. London: Zwemmer, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33973359.
Simon, Marie, and Vivienne Westwood. Fashion in Art: The Second Empire and Impressionism. London : New York: Zwemmer ; distributed in the USA and Canada by Antique Collector’s Club, 1995.
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