1867 saw an increasing popularity of princess-cut dresses (those without a waist seam) as well as a greater emphasis on back volume as the crinoline begins to disappear. Men’s trousers began to be more narrowly cut in the “French style.”


One of the fashion highlights of the year 1867 was the Exposition Universelle in Paris where the Maison Gagelin exhibited ready-to-wear dresses on mannequins. One dress showcased at the exposition was a princesse style, or “Eugenie,” a dress made out of silk, brocade, and lace (Tétart-Vittu 275).

Fittingly, the princesse style and silk, especially white silk, were popular styles during the year of 1867. The January 1867 World of Fashion stated that the most fashionable dresses are cut ” à la princesse” (1). Throughout the year, the princesse style continued to be adopted widely. The body and skirt of the dress are cut together and as a result, have no seams(Figs. 8, 9, also childrenswear Fig. 1). The style is often plain in the front and less full in the back. Moreover, double skirts are also popular (Figs. 5, 6, 9). They are embellished in various ways with trims and cuts. In terms of trimmings in evening gowns, flowers are sparingly used and increasingly replaced with bows throughout the year.

Lise with Umbrella

Fig. 1 - Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French, 1841-1919). Lise with Umbrella, 1867. Oil on canvas; 184 × 115 cm (72.4 × 45.3 in). Essen: Museum Folkwang. Source: Wikimedia Commons

The Parisian Sphinx

Fig. 2 - Alfred Stevens (Belgian, 1823-1906). The Parisian Sphinx, 1867. Oil on canvas; 72 x 53 cm. Antwerp: Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp, 1373. Source: Koninklijk Museum Voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen

Day dress

Fig. 3 - Charles Fredrick Worth (English, 1825-1895). Day dress, 1867- 70. Vitacura: Museo de la Moda. Source: Pinterest

Day dress

Fig. 4 - Designer unknown (French). Day dress, 1865-67. Gray silk faille. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.58.4.4a-e. Gift of Mrs. Alfred Poor, 1958. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Journal des Demoiselles

Fig. 5 - Artist unknown (French). Journal des Demoiselles, July 1867. Source: Pinterest

In December 1867, The World of Fashion reports that for evening dresses, broad sashes of lace and ribbon start from the front of the waist and form a large bow on the back. White silk is stated to be “one of the fashionable materials, and so is white muslin over white silk” (1). Figure 2 shows Alfred Stevens, The Parisian Sphinx, featuring a mysterious demimondaine wearing white translucent fabric, possibly chiffon dotted with flowers. She accessorizes with a black lace shawl and fur stole around her neck.

Additionally, the tight fitting paletot or peplum paletot made out of black silk and worn with a ceinture (waistbelt) is one of the fashionable garments for outdoor wear as observed in March 1867 from World of Fashion (see figure on the left in Fig. 9). It might be the only important garment for outdoor wear and are generally very short and are either very loose or fitted and square (1) (Fig. 9).


Fig. 6 - Depret (French). Dress, 1867-69. Piña cloth, silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.62.35.7a–c. Gift of Miss Elizabeth R. Hooker, 1962. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art


Fig. 7 - Artist unknown (French). Cendrillon, January 1867. Source: Tumblr

Cendrillon, Journal de petite Demosilles

Fig. 8 - Artist unknown (French). Cendrillon, Journal de petite Demosilles, March 1867. Source: Pinterest

World of Fashion

Fig. 9 - Artist unknown (French). World of Fashion, vol. 44, no. 518 (March 1867). Source: Google Books

Mrs. McDougall in wedding dress, Montreal, QC, 1867

Fig. 10 - William Notman (Canadian, 1826-1891). Mrs. McDougall in wedding dress, Montreal, QC, 1867, 1867. Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - albumen process; 8.5 x 5.6 cm. Montreal: McCord Museum, I-27291.1. Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.. Source: McCord Museum


The West End Gazette in their April 1867 issue noted that the English-style trouser was slowly disappearing and increasingly replaced with the French-style which was a tighter silhouette rather than a laid-back, comfortable fit that produced an “appearance of increased muscular development, and so add to the grace and harmony of the figure” (15). As noticed in figures 1, 2 and 4, the coat silhouette is slimmer and straight. The West End Gazette also reported the most popular color of the dress which was plain brown in various shades. Shades of bronze and green were introduced but were not adopted by most gentlemen (15). Figure 3 shows Frédéric Bazille wearing a coat with the color mixture of both bronze and green. However, Renoir’s choice of lighting could also distort the original colors of the suit.

Henri Fantin-Latour’s portrait of Manet was exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1867 (Fig. 1). Interestingly, Manet himself was not a part of the Salon that year, but his portrait was. Manet is portrayed by Fantin-Latour as a sophisticated, well-dressed gentleman, which was very different from his reputation as a “bohemian” (Art Institute). Manet is seen wearing a fitted sack coat and vest and high-waisted trousers. The blue tie, the only bright color in the clothes, helps bring out his eyes. Fantin-Latour helped increase Manet’s popularity in a clever way by showing the dapper bourgeois side to Manet.

Édouard Manet

Fig. 1 - Henri Fantin-Latour (French, 1836-1904). Édouard Manet, 1867. Oil on canvas; 117.5 x 90 cm (46 1/4 x 35 7/16 in). Chicago: The Art Institute of Chicago, 1905.207. Stickney Fund. Source: The Art Institute of Chicago

Dr. William H. Hingston, Montreal, QC, 1867

Fig. 2 - William Notman (Scottish-Canadian, 1826-1891). Dr. William H. Hingston, Montreal, QC, 1867, 1867. Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - albumen process; 8.5 x 5.6 cm. Montreal: Musée McCord, I-28703.1. Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.. Source: Musée McCord

Frédéric Bazille

Fig. 3 - Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French, 1841-1919). Frédéric Bazille, 1867. Oil on canvas; 105 x 73.5 cm. Paris: Musée d'Orsay. Bequest of Marc Bazille, 1924. Source: Musée d'Orsay

Portrait d'homme à la canne, Men's fashion in Perpignan: French industry

Fig. 4 - Artist unknown. Portrait d'homme à la canne, Men's fashion in Perpignan: French industry, 1867. Private Collection. Source: Institut du Grenat


Journal des Demoiselles

Fig. 1 - Artist unknown. Journal des Demoiselles, January 1867. Antwerp: ModeMuseum Provincie Antwerpen. Source: Europeana

Les Modes Parisiennes

Fig. 2 - Artist unknown. Les Modes Parisiennes, January 1867. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Public Library. Source: Pinterest

Girl's dress

Fig. 3 - Maker unknown (American). Girl's dress, ca. 1867-1868. Ivory cotton/wool plain weave, red silk/cotton velvet ribbon, cotton lace; 77.5 x 55.9 cm (30.5 x 22 in). Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1952-23-1. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Bertram Lippincott, 1952. Source: Philadelphia Museum of Art


Fig. 4 - Julia Margaret Cameron (British, 1815-1879). Untitled, 1867. Photograph. Source: Pinterest

  • “Édouard Manet | The Art Institute of Chicago.” Accessed February 18, 2017. http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/87467.
  • “Observations on Fashions,” The West-End Gazette of Gentlemen’s Fashion 5, no. 58 (April 1867): 15. – Link
  • “Observations on London and Parisian Fashions,” The World of Fashion 44, no. 517 (January 1867): 1. – Link
  • “Observations on London and Parisian Fashions,” The World of Fashion 44, no. 521 (May 1867): 1. – Link
  • “Observations on London and Parisian Fashions,” The World of Fashion 44, no. 528 (December 1867): 1. – Link
  • Tétart-Vittu, Françoise, and Gloria Groom. “Key Dates in Fashion and Commerce, 1851-89.” In Impressionism, Fashion, & Modernity, ed. Gloria Groom, 275. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.

Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1867

Europe 1867. Source: Omniatlas


Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

Fashion Plate Collections (Digitized)
NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Allgemeine Moden-Zeitung. Leipzig: Baumgärtner, 1867. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2091971.
Bow Bells. Vol. 7. London: John Dicks, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=is4aAQAAMAAJ.
Bow Bells. Vol. 6. London: John Dicks, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=5M0aAQAAMAAJ.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1867. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2971009.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 74. Philadelphia, 1867. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015027389389.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 75. Philadelphia, 1867. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015027389371.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 1. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1867. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1867.
Journal des demoiselles. Vol. 35. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?vid=HARVARD:HN73J8.
La Mode illustrée: journal de la famille. Paris: Firmin-Didot frère, fils et cie, 1867. http://books.google.com/books?id=-59drxzPuSQC.
La Sylphide : journal de modes, de littérature, de théâtres et de musique, 1867. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb34444962f/date1867.
Le Journal des coiffeurs : publication des coiffeurs réunis, 1867. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb344436197/date1867.
Le Journal des marchandes de modes : revue spéciale des chapeaux, bonnets, coiffures et lingeries. Paris, 1867. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb32800020n/date1867.r=.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 2. Paris: Goubaud, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=3MZBAAAAcAAJ.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 1. Paris: Goubaud, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=zMZBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 1. Paris: Aubert, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=ScNBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 2. Paris: Aubert, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=XMNBAAAAcAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 51–52. C.J. Peterson, 1867. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101076519980.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 51–52. C.J. Peterson, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=wqFHAAAAYAAJ.
The Lady’s Friend. Vol. 4. Philadelphia: Deacon & Peterson, 1867. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015068484438.
The World of Fashion and Continental Feuilletons [Afterw.] The Ladies’ Monthly Magazine, The World of Fashion [Afterw.] Le Monde Élégant; or The World of Fashion. Vol. 44 #517-45 #540, 1867. http://books.google.com/books?id=axwGAAAAQAAJ.
The World of Fashion and Continental Feuilletons [Afterw.] The Ladies’ Monthly Magazine, The World of Fashion [Afterw.] Le Monde Élégant; or The World of Fashion, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=axwGAAAAQAAJ.
Victoria : illustrirte Muster- und Moden-Zeitung. Berlin: Victoria-Verl., 1867. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Abell, L. G. Woman in Her Various Relations: Containing Practical Rules for American Females. New York: Hubbard & Burgess, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100192096.
Aster, Jane. The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances, Nice Points of Taste and Good Manners, and the Art of Making One’s-Self Agreeable. The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments, Remarks on the History and Changes of Fashion, and the Differences of English and Continental Etiquette. New York: Carleton, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676290.
Cox, Sydney. Friendly Counsel for Girls, or, Words in Season. Words in Season. New York: G. W. Carlton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011538429.
D., and D. [from old catalog] C. The Matter of Manner. Sudbury: H. S. Pratt, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100138761.
Fox, George Patrick. [from old catalog]. Fashion. New York, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009597581.
France. Cérémonial. Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008404138.
Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell. Manners: Or, Happy Homes and Good Society All the Year Round. Boston: J. E. Tilton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011563026.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette: And Manual of Politeness: A Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society: Containing Full Directions for Correct Manners, Dress, Deportment, and Conversation ... and Also Useful Receipts for the Complexion, Hair, and with Hints and Directions for the Care of the Wardrobe ... Boston: G. W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777142.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness ; a Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society. Boston: G.W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100685756.
Leslie, Eliza. The Ladies’ Guide to True Politeness and Perfect Manners: Or, Miss Leslie’s Behaviour Book, a Guide and Manual for Ladies ... Philadelphia: B. Peterson, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100165382.
Merten, Heinrich. Modernes Komplimentirbuch; Oder, Die Quintessenz Des Anstades Und Der Eleganz. Ein Unentbehrlicher Rathgeber Für Personen Beiderlei Geschlechts. Reutlingen: Fleischauer und Spohn, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008679336.
Routledge’s Manual of Etiquette. London ; New York: Routledge, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007672052.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances. New York: Rudd & Carleton, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011159230.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen...The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments. New York: Carleton, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676292.
Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)
The Journal Des Tailleurs, or The Cutter’s Monthly Journal of London & Paris Fashions and Chronicle of Fashion. [Continued as] The Cutter’s Monthly Journal and Tailor’s Chronicle, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=Rx4GAAAAQAAJ.
The West-End Gazette of Gentlemen’s Fashion, 1867. https://books.google.com/books?id=iRUGAAAAQAAJ.

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

“Bloomsbury Fashion Central - Berg Fashion Library,” n.d. https://www.bloomsburyfashioncentral.com/products/berg-fashion-library.
Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. “Chronology,” n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
“Costume Institute Fashion Plates.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/p15324coll12.
“Der Bazar - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2083461.
Vintage Fashion Guild. “Fashion Timeline: 1860 To 1870,” n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1860-to-1870/.
“Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion.” Accessed May 7, 2018. https://books.google.com/books?id=tCIGAAAAQAAJ&source=gbs_similarbooks.
“Hemeroteca Digital. Biblioteca Nacional de España.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://hemerotecadigital.bne.es/results.vm?a=4782809&t=%2Bcreation&l=600&l=700&s=0&y=1868&lang=en.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “History of Fashion 1840 - 1900,” July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
Cook, Michael. “Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition and History,” January 1, 2003. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1868.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion,” January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
“Victoria - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
History of Fashion and Dress. “Victorian Era: The Crinoline Period (1850-1869),” n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/belleepoque.html.
Acton, William R. Acton’s Improved System of Actual Measurement. [New York, De Vries & Wood, printers], 1867. http://archive.org/details/actonsimprovedsy00acto.
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, ed. A Visual History of Costume. London : Batsford ; New York: Drama Book Publishers, 1983.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Boucher, François. Paris, Miroir de La Mode: Crinolines et Calèches, 1855-1867. Paris: Éditions Rombaldi, 1959. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/438804700.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brockaway, W. [from old catalog. The Great Balance-Measure System, for Cutting Coats, Vests, Pants, Cloaks, and Shirts. New York, Baker & Godwin, printers, 1864. http://archive.org/details/greatbalancemeas01broc.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Brundage, William W. [from old catalog. A Complete System of Cutting. [New York, Printed by A. Marrer], 1867. http://archive.org/details/completesystemof00brun.
Cole, Luman E. [from old catalog. The Tailors’ Guide: Containing Systems of Draughting Frock and Sack Coats, Pants, Vests and Shirts, with Valuable Improvements, Warranted Superior to Anything Ever Offered to the Trade. Milwaukee, Stan & son, book and job printers, 1868. http://archive.org/details/tailorsguidecont00cole.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
De Young, Justine. “‘Housewife or Harlot’: Art, Fashion & Morality in the Paris Salon of 1868.” In Cultures of Femininity in Modern Fashion, edited by Ilya Parkins and Elizabeth M. Sheehan, 124–47. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire Press, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/823388661.
De Young, Justine. “Fashion and the Press.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 233–43. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Dolan, Therese. “The Empress’s New Clothes: Fashion and Politics in Second Empire France.” Woman’s Art Journal, Spring 1994, 22–28. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1358491.
Dolan, Therese. “Skirting the Issue: Manet’s Portrait of Baudelaire’s Mistress, Reclining.” The Art Bulletin 79, no. 4 (December 1997). http://www.jstor.org/stable/3046278.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Glencross, William [from old catalog. Manual; New York, W. Glencross, 1866. http://archive.org/details/manual00glen.
Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hambourg, Maria Morris. Nadar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851034965.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
Lambert, Miles. Fashion in Photographs 1860-1880. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300306371.
Lansdell, Avril. Fashion à La Carte, 1860-1900: A Study of Fashion through Cartes-de-Visite. History in Camera. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/436041340.
Leisch, Juanita. Who Wore What?: Women’s Wear, 1861-1865. Gettysburg: Thomas Publications, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33070937.
MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Grace Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Samuel Sachs. Whistler, Women, & Fashion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/757386204.
Maeder, Edward, and Evelyn Ackerman, eds. Dressed for the Country, 1860-1900: Exhibition. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/562356615.
Matyjaszkiewicz, Krystyna. “Costume in Tissot’s Pictures.” In James Tissot, 64–77. Oxford: Phaidon, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630471252.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “Photography, Fashion, and the Cult of Appearances.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 197–207. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “The Carte de Visite and Portrait Painting during the Second Empire.” In A.A.E. Disdéri and the Carte de Visite Portrait Photograph, 137–203. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/755288192.
Nead, Lynda. “The Layering of Pleasure: Women, Fashionable Dress and Visual Culture in the Mid-Nineteenth Century.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 35, no. 5 (2013): 489–509.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. 80 Godey’s Full-Color Fashion Plates, 1838-1880. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/868271404.
Phyliky, Leonard. The Tailor; New System of Drafting Direct from the Measurement Taken with a Tape Measure, without Any Instrument, for All the Various Forms of the Human Body. New York: T. Holman, 1867. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011213188.
Piazza, Arianna, ed. Fashion 150: 150 Years, 150 Designers. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/961459695.
Ribeiro, Aileen. “The Art of Dress: Fashion in Renoir’s La Loge.” In Renoir at the Theatre: Looking at La Loge, edited by Ernst Vegelin van Claerbergen and Barnaby Wright, 45–63. London: The Courtauld Gallery, 2008. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/938162816.
Roskill, Mark W. “Early Impressionism and the Fashion Print.” The Burlington Magazine 112, no. 807 (June 1970): 390–95. http://www.jstor.org/stable/876343.
Schirrmeister, Anne. “La Dernière Mode: Berthe Morisot and Costume.” In Perspectives on Morisot, edited by T. J. Edelstein, 103–15. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1990. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/463695207.
Severa, Joan L. Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/552147475.
Shep, R. L., and Mark Campbell, eds. Civil War Ladies: Fashions and Needle-Arts of the Early 1860s. Mendocino: R.L. Shep, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794531398.
Simon, Marie. Fashion in Art: The Second Empire and Impressionism. London: Zwemmer, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33973359.
Simon, Marie, and Vivienne Westwood. Fashion in Art: The Second Empire and Impressionism. London : New York: Zwemmer ; distributed in the USA and Canada by Antique Collector’s Club, 1995.