1876 was a year that abided by the rule of “more is more”, as the most fashionable styles at the time included dramatic bustle silhouettes, combinations of multiple fabrics on a single garment, and extravagant trimmings.



n 1876, the popular silhouette was straight in the front with volume distributed to the back. A typical dress of this year would be comprised of a long cuirass, which is a tight-fitting bodice often reaching down to the hips and upper thighs, over a skirt. The polonaise princess dress was also one of the most significant styles of the year. This refers to a dress with a very long overskirt with ample fabric in the back, often draped in interesting ways to show a bit of the underskirt beneath (“Chitchat on Fashions for March” 293). This year was devoted to making the female figure appear slender and, as described in Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine:

“Dresses are made more and more scant in front. Present beau ideal of fashion is for the figure to present a perfectly straight line all the way down in front while the skirt describes a well-supported train at the back… Cuirass bodices are made longer, waists elongated – the figure is not compressed but the outlines are clearly defined.” (294)

Day and evening dresses had roughly the same silhouette, but are differentiated from one another through their materials and the amount of trimmings used. 1876 was a year that greatly favored trims and it was considered stylish to lavishly embellish a dress with these added details, the most popular of which were écru lace, fringe, braids, and flowers of every variety (“Fashions for January” 90). Flowers were heavily used in spring and summer garments, as seen in figure 1, and some magazines even considered them to be “the most fashionable, as they are also the most beautiful of trimmings” (“Chitchat on Fashions for March” 294).

Écru was not only used in lace, but it was a highly favored shade of fabric as well, as seen in figure 3. Along with black, it was certainly one of the most popular colors of the year. Other fashionable shades included pale gray and cream white, and red was often used for trims (“Fashions for September” 226). Figure 3 showcases écru, black, and red fabrics as well as braid detailing.

One of the most significant trends of the year was combining different colors and fabrics together within a single dress, as noted in Harper’s Bazar:

“There are daily discovered such varied and ingenious combinations of two materials, one plain and the other figured… Not only will they compose most of the toilettes this winter, but all the orders given for the spring and for next summer in fabrics of all kinds – silk, wool, and cotton – are for combinations of two different but well-matched materials employed for one and the same toilette.” (10)

Stripes and gingham in light shades were very popular in the spring and summer (“Fashions for April” 307). One combination that is seen very often is a blue and white dress that includes both stripes and solid panels of these colors. Variations on this particular outfit have been depicted in many fashion plates (Fig. 4) and paintings, including James Tissot’s Holyday (Fig. 5), Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Fig. 6), and an untitled portrait by Pierre-Paul-Léon Glaize (Fig. 7).

Le Moniteur de la mode

Fig. 1 - Jules David (French, 1808–1892). Le Moniteur de la mode, January 4, 1876. Hand-painted etching. Düsseldorf: Universität Düsseldorf. Source: Universität Düsseldorf

Écru evening dress

Fig. 2 - Designer unknown. Écru evening dress, 1876. Silk, lace. Bath: Fashion Museum of Bath. Source: Twitter

Le Moniteur de la mode

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown (French). Le Moniteur de la mode, March 2, 1876. Hand-painted etching. Düsseldorf: Universität Düsseldorf. Source: Universität Düsseldorf

Journal des demoiselles

Fig. 4 - Paul Lucinriere (French). Journal des demoiselles, June 1876. Hand-painted etching. Source: Pinterest


Fig. 5 - James Tissot (French, 1836–1902). Holyday, 1876. Oil on canvas; 76.2 x 99.4 cm (30 x 39.13 in). London: Tate Britain, N04413. Purchased 1928. Source: Tate

Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette

Fig. 6 - Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French, 1841-1919). Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette, 1876. Oil on canvas; 131 x 135 cm (51.57 x 53.15 in). Paris: Musée d'Orsay, Gustave Caillebotte bequest, 1894. RF 2739. Source: Musée d'Orsay


Fig. 7 - Pierre-Paul-Léon Glaize (French, 1842-1931). Untitled, 1876. Oil on canvas. Private Collection. Source: Pinterest

In Portrait de Mademoiselle X, Marquise Anforti (Fig. 8), Carolus-Duran depicts his subject as the epitome of a wealthy, fashionable woman. She wears an incredibly opulent evening gown, comprised of gray silk satin and heavily adorned with floral embroidery and a large strip of fringe along the hem. The plain cuirass bodice hugs her form and swaths of fabric balloon out behind her. The clinging, low-cut nature of this dress along with the trimmings, voluminous back, and gauze over the shoulders all transform the subject into an embodiment of style, wealth, and femininity. We can see an almost-identical garment in another of Carolus-Duran’s portraits, Mademoiselle de Lancey (Fig. 9), and a similar outfit is described in Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine’s “Chitchat on Fashions for December”:

“Embroidery on dresses is the present fancy of rich women in Europe…The tablier breadth is usually covered with needle work, and there are many yards of wrought bands for borders and as beadings of flounces. One very beautiful imported dress is of pale gray satin, has a tablier front, embroidered with silk and chenille to represent water lilies.” (578)

Such opulence was commonplace in the evening wear of 1876 and it was considered stylish to use heavy brocades, oftentimes combined with other rich fabrics (“Fashions for April” 307). This trend can be observed in figures 10, 11, and 12. The attitude towards this style is illustrated best by Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine:

“But alas! While the cry is for simplicity in material, costliness and extravagance seem the order of the day. Heavy fabrics are very much more fashionable, rich fabrics falling in straight folds.” (577)

Portrait de Mademoiselle X, Marquise Anforti

Fig. 8 - Charles-Émile-Auguste Carolus Duran (French, 1837-1917). Portrait de Mademoiselle X, Marquise Anforti, 1876. Oil on canvas; 206 x 127.5 cm (81.1 x 50.2 in). Cambrai: Musée Cambrai. Source: Musée d'Orsay

Mademoiselle de Lancey

Fig. 9 - Charles-Émile-Auguste Carolus Duran (French, 1837-1913). Mademoiselle de Lancey, 1876. Oil on canvas; 157 x 211 cm (61.81 x 83.07 in). Paris: Petit Palais, PPP581. Bequest of Alice Tahl known as de Lancey, 1913. Source: Petit Palais

Mrs. J. Wotherspoon, Montreal, QC, 1876

Fig. 10 - William Notman (Scottish-Canadian, 1826-1891). Mrs. J. Wotherspoon, Montreal, QC, 1876, 1876. Silver salts on paper mounted on paper, albumen process; 17.8 x 12.7 cm (7 x 5 in). Montreal: McCord Museum, II-23995.1. Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.. Source: McCord Museum

Dinner dress

Fig. 11 - Designer unknown (American). Dinner dress, 1876. Silk. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975.227.3. Gift of Theodore Fischer Ells, 1975. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Le Moniteur de la mode

Fig. 12 - E. Thirien (French). Le Moniteur de la mode, January 3, 1876. Etching. Düsseldorf: Universität Düsseldorf. Source: Universität Düsseldorf


[To come…]

S. Kinnear, Montreal, QC, 1876

Fig. 1 - William Notman (Scottish-Canadian, 1826-1891). S. Kinnear, Montreal, QC, 1876, 1876. Silver salts on paper mounted on paper, albumen process; 17.8 x 12.7 cm (7 x 5 in). Montreal: McCord Museum, II-24235.1. Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.. Source: McCord Museum

Gentlemen's Magazine of Fashion

Fig. 2 - Artist unknown. Gentlemen's Magazine of Fashion, October 1876. Hand-painted etching. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Leaving the Conservatory (La Sortie du conservatoire)

Fig. 3 - Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French, 1841-1919). Leaving the Conservatory (La Sortie du conservatoire), 1876. Oil on canvas; 187.5 x 117.5 cm (73.8125 x 46.25 in). Philadelphia: Barnes Foundation, BF862. Source: Barnes Foundation Collection

Gentlemen's Magazine of Fashion

Fig. 4 - Artist unknown. Gentlemen's Magazine of Fashion, May 1876. Hand-painted etching. London: Victoria and Albert Museum. E.978-1946. Source: Victoria and Albert Museum


Princess Victoria of Wales

Fig. 1 - William & Daniel Downey (British). Princess Victoria of Wales, February 1876. Albumen print; 13.3 x 9.3 cm (5.24 x 3.66 in). London: Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 2903037. Source: Royal Collection Trust

Portrait of Jeanne Durand-Ruel (Portrait de Mlle. J.)

Fig. 2 - Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French, 1841-1919). Portrait of Jeanne Durand-Ruel (Portrait de Mlle. J.), 1876. Oil on canvas; 114 x 74 cm (44.875 x 29.125 in). Philadelphia: Barnes Foundation, BF950. Source: Barnes Foundation Collection

Prince Ernest Louis, and Princesses Irene, Alix, and Marie of Hesse

Fig. 3 - Carl Backofen (German, 1853-1909). Prince Ernest Louis, and Princesses Irene, Alix, and Marie of Hesse, May 1876. Albumen print; 14.2 x 10 cm (5.59 x 3.94 in). London: Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 2903049. Source: Royal Collection Trust

Striped girl's dress

Fig. 4 - Designer unknown (British). Striped girl's dress, 1876. Silk. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980.408.1. Purchase, Gifts from Various Donors, 1980. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art


Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1876

Imperial Europe (1871-1914) Source: Omniatlas

  • February 15 – Boston dressmaker Olivia Flynt patents and advertises a corsetless breast supporter designed for women with large busts. It is known as the first bust supporter produced in the United States.
  • March 7th – Alexander Graham Bell is granted a United States patent for the telephone.
  • June 4th – The Transcontintental Express arrives in San Francisco (from New York City) via the First Transcontental Railroad.
  • June 22nd – Madeleine Vionnet, French fashion designer, is born.
  • June 25th/26th – The most significant event of the Great Sioux War of 1876, the Battle of the Little Bighorn, occurs. This gruesome battle resulted in the defeat of US forces and a great victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes.
  • July 1st/2nd – Serbia and Montenegro declare war on the Ottoman Empire.

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1876. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2916191.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 92. Philadelphia, 1876. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015014112935.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 93. Philadelphia, 1876. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015034639941.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 9. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1876. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1876.
Journal des demoiselles. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1876. https://books.google.com/books?id=b1wEAAAAYAAJ.
La Mode Illustrée: Journal de La Famille. Starts with 208-0019-002.Jpg, 1876. http://digital.bunka.ac.jp/kichosho/file/No.208/.
Le Follet. Vol. 29. London: E. Minister & Son, 1876. https://books.google.com/books?id=_x0GAAAAQAAJ.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. Paris: Goubaud, 1876. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2089865.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 69–70. C.J. Peterson, 1876. http://books.google.com/books?id=qpfNAAAAMAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 69–70. C.J. Peterson, 1876. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101076520061.
Menswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
A member of the aristocracy. Manners and Tone of Good Society. Or, Solecisms to Be Avoided. London: F. Warne and co., 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007958573.
Brinton, Daniel Garrison, and George H. Napheys. The Laws of Health in Relation to the Human Form. Personal Health. Springfield, Mass.: W.J. Holland, 1870. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011609586.
Cheadle, Eliza. Manners of Modern Society: Being a Book of Etiquette. London ; New York: Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1892. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011159363.
Duffey, Eliza Bisbee. The Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s Etiquette: A Complete Manual of the Manners and Dress of American Society. Philadelphia: Porter and Coates, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007126751.
Fox, George Patrick. [from old catalog]. Fashion: The Power That Influences the World. New York: American news company; [etc., etc.], 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011204646.
Gow, Alexander M. Good Morals and Gentle Manners. For Schools and Families. Cincinnati, New York: Van ANtwerp, Bragg & co., 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/002434282.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness: A Complete Handbook for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society. Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008679158.
Johnson, S. O., and Cairns Collection of American Women Writers. A Manual of Etiquette with Hints on Politeness and Good Breeding. Philadelphia: D. McKay, 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777095.
Kernan, James. Perfect Etiquette, or, How to Behave in Society: A Complete Manual for Ladies and Gentlemen ... New York: A. Cogswell, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100485515.
Moore, Bloomfield H. Sensible Etiquette of the Best Society, Customs, Manners, Morals, and Home Culture. Philadelphia: Porter and Coates, 1878. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007957836.
Powers, S. D. Behaving: Or, Papers on Children’s Etiquette. Boston: D. Lothrop, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100557991.
Ruth, John A., and C. S. Snyder. Decorum, a Practical Treatise on Etiquette and Dress of the BestAmerican Society. Chicago: J.A. Ruth, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007671336.
Thornwell, Emily., and J.B. Lippincott & Co. The Lady’s Guide to Perfect Gentility: In Manners, Dress, and Conversation, in the Family, in Company, at the Piano-Forte, the Table, in the Street, and in Gentlemen’s Society ; Also a Useful Instructor in Letter Writing, Toilet Preparations, Fancy Needlework, Millinery, Dressmaking, Care of Wardrobe, the Hair, Teeth, Hands, Lips, Complexion, Etc. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1876. http://hdl.handle.net/10111/UIUCBB:thorem0001ladgui.
Tomes, Robert. The Bazar Book of Decorum. The Care of the Person, Manners, Etiquette, and Ceremonials ... New York: Harper & Brothers, 1870. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/102133514.
Wells, Samuel R. How to Behave; a Pocket Manual of Republican Etiquette, and Guide to Correct Personal Habits... Hand-Books for Home Improvement,No. III. New York: S. R. Wells, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921276.
La Vraie Politesse et Le Bon Ton plus Particuliè Rement à l’usage Des Élèves Des Collèges, Pensionnats, Etc., Etc., et de Tous Ceux Qui Entrent Dans La Société. CIHM/ICMH Microfiche Series = CIHM/ICMH Collection de Microfiches ;No. 36736. Montréal? s.n.], 1873. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100275186.
High-Life: Usi e Costumi Della Vita Elegante, 1879. Milano: Direzione generale della Raccolta Daugnon, 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100223990.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen: With Thougts, Hints and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances, Nice Points of Taste and Good Manners ... Hand-Books of Society ;2. New York: G.W. Carleton, 1872. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012454830.
The Manners That Win. Minneapolis: Buckeye Pub. Co., 1879. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012393095.

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. “Chronology,” n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
Vintage Fashion Guild. “Fashion Timeline: 1870 To 1880,” n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1870-to-1880/.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “History of Fashion 1840 - 1900,” July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion,” January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
History of Fashion and Dress. “Victorian Era: First Bustle and Natural Form (1870-1883),” n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/firstbustle.html.
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Blanc, Charles. Art in Ornament and Dress. New York: Scribner Welford and Armstrong, 1877. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/903437797.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Burnham, Helen. “Fashion and the Representation of Modernity: Studies in the Late Work of Édouard Manet (1832-1883).” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/226381287.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
Crawford, William T. [from old catalog. Crawford’s System on the Science and Art of Garment Cutting. [Providence?, 1874. http://archive.org/details/crawfordssystemo00craw.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
De Young, Justine. “Fashion and the Press.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 233–43. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Dombrowski, André. “The Emperor’s Last Clothes: Cézanne, Fashion and ‘l’année Terrible.’” Burlington Magazine 148, no. 1242 (September 2006): 586–94. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20074554.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Flamant-Paparatti, Danielle. Bien Pensantes, Cocodettes et Bas Bleus : La Femme Bourgeoise à Travers La Presse Féminine et Familiale (1873-1887). Paris: Denoël, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/906468967.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Furbank, Philip Nicholas, and Alex M. Cain. Mallarmé on Fashion: A Translation of the Fashion Magazine, Le Dernière Mode, with Commentary. New York: Berg, 2004. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/936905110.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Glencross, William [from old catalog. A Scientific Guide to Practical Cutting. New York, W. Glencross, 1873. http://archive.org/details/scientificguidet00glen.
Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hambourg, Maria Morris. Nadar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851034965.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
Koch, Augustus [from old catalog. The Cutters’ Centennial Guide; Poughkeepsie, N.Y. [Printed at the office of the Poughkeepsie telegraph and daily press], 1876. http://archive.org/details/cutterscentennia00koch.
Lambert, Miles. Fashion in Photographs 1860-1880. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300306371.
Lansdell, Avril. Fashion à La Carte, 1860-1900: A Study of Fashion through Cartes-de-Visite. History in Camera. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/436041340.
Linthicum, William O. [from old catalog. Divisional and Exact Measurement Systems for Garment Cutting. New York, Morgan, Comes & Lawrence, stationers and printers, 1872. http://archive.org/details/divisionalexactm00lint.
Linthicum, William O. [from old catalog]. Divisional and Exact Measurement Systems for Garment Cutting. New York: Lawrence & Allen, stationers and printers, 1876. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009584972.
MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Grace Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Samuel Sachs. Whistler, Women, & Fashion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/757386204.
Madison, J. O. (James Otis). Elements of Garment Cutting. Hartford, Conn., The Case, Lockwood & Brainard company, printers, 1878. http://archive.org/details/elementsofgarmen00madi.
Maeder, Edward, and Evelyn Ackerman, eds. Dressed for the Country, 1860-1900: Exhibition. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/562356615.
Matheson, H. [from old catalog. H. Matheson’s Scientific and Practical Guide for the Tailor’s Cutting Department. New York, H. Matheson, 1871. http://archive.org/details/hmathesonsscient00math.
Matheson, H. [from old catalog]. H. Matheson’s Scientific and Practical Guide for the Tailor’s Cutting Department. New York: H. Matheson, 1871. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009590484.
Matyjaszkiewicz, Krystyna. “Costume in Tissot’s Pictures.” In James Tissot, 64–77. Oxford: Phaidon, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630471252.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “Photography, Fashion, and the Cult of Appearances.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 197–207. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Muller, Florence, Farid Chenoune, and Phillippe Thiébaut. Dior Impressions: The Inspiration and Influence of Impressionism at the House of Dior. New York: Rizzoli, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876440735.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. 80 Godey’s Full-Color Fashion Plates, 1838-1880. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/868271404.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. Full-Color Victorian Fashions, 1870-1893. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1999. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/40838676.
Piazza, Arianna, ed. Fashion 150: 150 Years, 150 Designers. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/961459695.
Ribeiro, Aileen. “The Art of Dress: Fashion in Renoir’s La Loge.” In Renoir at the Theatre: Looking at La Loge, edited by Ernst Vegelin van Claerbergen and Barnaby Wright, 45–63. London: The Courtauld Gallery, 2008. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/938162816.
Roskill, Mark W. “Early Impressionism and the Fashion Print.” The Burlington Magazine 112, no. 807 (June 1970): 390–95. http://www.jstor.org/stable/876343.
Schirrmeister, Anne. “La Dernière Mode: Berthe Morisot and Costume.” In Perspectives on Morisot, edited by T. J. Edelstein, 103–15. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1990. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/463695207.
Selle, William [from old catalog. A Treatise on the Measurement of the Human Body and the Art of Cutting Materials for Gentlemen’s Clothes. Chicago, Ill., C. F. Lichtner, book and job printer, 1873. http://archive.org/details/treatiseonmeasur00sell.
Selle, William [from old catalog. Die lehre der körpermessung und der kunst des zuschneidens von herrenkleidern. Chicago, Ill., Buch- und accidenz-druckerei von C. F. Lichtner, 1873. http://archive.org/details/dielehrederkrp00sell.
Severa, Joan L. Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/552147475.
Pinterest. “1876,” 1876. https://www.pinterest.com/stukley/1876/.
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