OVERVIEW

Extreme bustles, striped patterns, and elaborate embellishments were all staples of the year 1886, characterizing it as a time of highly exaggerated and decorative fashion.

Womenswear

Harper’s Bazar summarized the most desirable trends of 1886 in a June “New York Fashions” column:

“The most fashionable modistes make great use of watered ribbons and of the watered silks that are now marked in wide waves almost equal to those of the moire antique formerly in vogue. Entire dresses are now made of this moire, with the skirt veiled with lace, those of black having the imitation Chantilly laces, and white moire skirts being covered with imitation Valenciennes lace.” (367)

In addition to materials, they also noted that:

“Stripes, sashes, lengthwise pleats, revers, and very bouffant draperies, some of which are long and others very short, are the features that are confirmed for next season’s dresses.” (155)

Overall, 1886 was a year in which silhouettes, textile decoration, and clothing embellishments were all dramatized. As a result, looks from the time remained elegant, yet bold and eye-catching.

Miss Ethel Bond

Fig. 1 - Wm. Notman & Son (Canadian, 1826-1891). Miss Ethel Bond, 1886. Silver salts on glass - gelatin dry plate process; 17 x 12 cm (6.7 x 4.7 in). Montreal: McCord Museum. Source: McCord Museum

Peterson's Magazine

Fig. 2 - Latest-Style House-Dress; Walking-Dress. Peterson's Magazine, May 1886. Engraving; 23 x 14 cm (8.7 x 5.5 in). New York: Mid-Manhattan Picture Collection. Source: NYPL

Wedding dress

Fig. 3 - Designer unknown. Wedding dress, 1886. Silk, lace, and cotton. Manchester: Manchester Art Gallery, 1947.4163. Source: Manchester Art Gallery

Portrait

Fig. 4 - Artist unknown. Portrait, 1886. Montreal: Musée McCord. Source: Pinterest

Dress

Fig. 5 - Designer unknown (American). Dress, 1886. Silk. New York: The Met, C.I.47.76.12a–e. Gift of Miss Alice Baldwin Beer, 1947. Source: The Met

One of the most stark differences between the earlier half of the decade and 1886 was the revival of the bustle (Figs. 1-2). Dresses during this year tended to taper at the waistline and then make dramatic extensions at the back, creating a distinct curve. In addition to bustles, trains which trailed behind dresses also became typical (Fig. 3), further expressing the elaborate fashions of the year. As for the top portion of dresses, v-necklines (Fig. 4) became the standard as opposed to more the simpler necklines which had come before 1886.

However, dress shape and form was not the only way in which fashion had become more dramatic throughout the year. Fabrics were frequently patterned, the most desirable including checks, stripes, bars, and plaid. The coloring of these patterns was crucial as well, as Harper’s Bazar (1886) wrote in their July “New York Fashions” column:

“Very yellow browns prevail in all these blocked goods; the combination of red with blue is seen more often in stripes than in the blocks or bars. The genuine Scotch Cheviots are shown in half-inch stripes alternately red and blue, tan with blue, gray with black, and green with brown…The present fancy for black and white mixtures is continued in heavy woollens, showing bars, checks, stripes, and double bars of white on black.” (479)

Muted and neutral colors became extremely popular in 1886 as a way to compliment the abundance of patterns circulating the market (Figs. 5-6).

Towards the end of 1886, the holiday season created a large demand for evening gowns. It was during this time in which decorative trends from the year including using ribbons, braids and beading as a form of embellishment were exaggerated even further. Dresses were decorated through embroidery with precious stones and metallics, creating dresses of grandiose appearance (Figs. 7-8).

Day dress

Fig. 6 - Designer unknown (American). Day dress, 1886. Sateen, sateen/glazed cotton, and ivory. Lowell: American Textile History Museum. Source: Pinterest

The New Year's Party, Peterson's Magazine

Fig. 7 - Illman Brothers (American). The New Year's Party, Peterson's Magazine, 1886. Hand-colored engraving; 23 x 29 cm (9 x 11.2 in). New York: Mid-Manhattan Picture Collection. Source: NYPL

Day Gown

Fig. 8 - Designer unknown. Day Gown, 1886. Los Angeles, 2009.5.70AB. Source: FIDM Museum & Galleries

John Singer Sargent’s portrait of Mrs Robert Harrison done in 1886 (Fig. 9) faced criticism from the public because the subject’s fashion choices deviated from the standard of the year. Although her dress also displays two trends  of the year–heavy amounts of tulle and cuffed sleeves–the public was thrown by the red cloak draped over the dress. The Tate Museum notes that:

“When the portrait was exhibited at the 1886 Royal Academy one commentator exclaimed that she had never seen Mrs Harrison ‘wearing such red wing-like appendages to her costume, which look as though about to expand and convey her to the regions of Mephistopheles.'”

Its loose fit did not conform to the snug, fitted jackets deemed to be fashionable that year, and the triangular, winged cuts on the back of the garment looked alien in comparison to the flowy and draped garments which were so popular.

Portrait of Mrs Robert Harrison

Fig. 9 - John Singer Sargent (American, 1856–1925). Portrait of Mrs Robert Harrison, 1886. Oil on canvas; 157.8 x 80.3 cm (62.1 x 31.6 in). London: Tate. Source: Tate

Menswear

Peterson's Magazine

Fig. 1 - Artist unknown (American). Peterson's Magazine, 1886. New York: Mid-Manhattan Picture Collection. Source: NYPL Digital Collections

The Artist's Son, Paul

Fig. 2 - Paul Cézanne (French, 1839 - 1906). The Artist's Son, Paul, 1886-87. Oil on canvas; 65.3 x 54 cm (25 x 21. 2 in). Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1963.10.100. Source: National Gallery of Art

The National Gallery 1886, Interior of Room 32

Fig. 3 - Giuseppe Gabrielli. The National Gallery 1886, Interior of Room 32, 1886. Oil on canvas; 110 x 142 cm (43.3 x 55. 9 in). London: The National Gallery. Source: The National Gallery

J. M. Martin

Fig. 4 - Wm. Notman & Son (Canadian, 1826-1891). J. M. Martin, 1886. Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - albumen process; 15 x 10 cm (5.9 x 3.9 in). Montreal: Musée McCord Museum. Source: Musée McCord Museum

CHILDREN’S WEAR

Le Moniteur de la Mode

Fig. 1 - Jules David (French). Le Moniteur de la Mode, 1886. Hand-colored engraving; 26 x 35.5 cm (10.2 x 14 in). Montreal: L'Affichiste Vintage Poster Gallery. Source: L'Affichiste

Missie Rainville

Fig. 2 - Wm. Notman & Son (Canadian, 1826-1891). Missie Rainville, 1886. Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - albumen process; 15 x 10 cm (5.9 x 3.9 in). Montreal: Musée McCord Museum. Source: Musée McCord Museum

Le Moniteur de la mode

Fig. 3 - Jules David (French). Le Moniteur de la mode, 1886. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Child in a Straw Hat

Fig. 4 - Mary Cassatt (American, 1844-1926). Child in a Straw Hat, 1886. Oil on canvas; 65.3 x 49.2 cm (25 x 19 in). Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1983.1.17. Source: National Gallery of Art

References:

Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1886
Rulers:

Europe 1884. Source: Omniatlas

Events:
    • 1886 – Last Impressionist group exhibition
    • 1886 – Statue of Liberty is dedicated as a gift
    • 1886 – Post-Impressionist works begin being displayed
    • 1886 – Georges Seurat finishes painting Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

Fashion Plate Collections (digitized)
NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin, 1886. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3071341.
Good Housekeeping. C.W. Bryan, 1886. https://books.google.com/books?id=8Vs6AQAAMAAJ.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 19. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1886. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1886.
Illustrierte Frauenzeitung : Ausgabe Der Modenwelt Mit Unterhaltungsblatt. Berlin: Bruckmann, 1886. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/3102088.
Journal des demoiselles. Vol. 54. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1886. https://books.google.com/books?vid=HARVARD:HN73HK.
La Moda elegante ilustrada : periódico de las familias. Vol. 45. Madrid, 1886. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101079823710.
La Mode illustrée: journal de la famille. starts with 208-0029-002.jpg. Paris: Firmin-Didot frères, fils et cie, 1886. http://digital.bunka.ac.jp/kichosho/file/No.208/.
Myra’s Threepenny Journal. London: Goubaud & Son, 1886. http://dbooks.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/books/PDFs/555076942.pdf.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 89. C.J. Peterson, 1886. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101076520152.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 89–90. C.J. Peterson, 1886. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=iau.31858034538904.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 90. C.J. Peterson, 1886. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.32000000715906.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 90. C.J. Peterson, 1886. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101076520160.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 89. C.J. Peterson, 1886. https://books.google.com/books?id=GMo2AQAAMAAJ.
The Family Friend. S.W. Partridge & Company, 1886. https://books.google.com/books?id=TQ7H9A-v6BQC.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
[Young, John H]. Our Deportment; or, The Manners, Conduct, and Dress of the Most Refined Society, Including Forms of Letters, Invitations, Etc., Etc., Also, Valuable Suggestions on Home Culture and Training. Comp. from the Latest Reliable Authorities... Detroit, Mich.: F. B. Dickerson & co., 1882. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921277.
Alq, Louise Alquié de Rieusseyroux. [Le Nouveau Savoir-Vivre Universel]. Paris: Bureaux des causeries familières, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008681992.
Andrews, Wesley R. The American Code of Manners: A Study of the Usages, Laws and Observances Which Govern Intercourse in the Best Social Circles ... New York: Andrews, 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007696346.
Armstrong, Mary Frances Morgan. On Habits and Manners. Hampton, Va.: Normal School Press, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/102114189.
Aster, Jane. The Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s Etiquette Book of the Best Society. Information and Instruction for Those about Entering, and Those Who Desire to Become Educated and Polished in General Society ... New York: G. W. Carleton & co.; [etc., etc.], 1882. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007678006.
Aster, Jane., and Cairns Collection of American Women Writers. Sensible Etiquette and Good Manners of the Best Society ... to Which Is Added The Art of Writing. Carleton’s Household Library. New York: G.W. Carleton, 1882. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777127.
Carroll, George D., and Dempsey & Carroll. The Art of Dinner Giving and Usages of Polite Society. Art of Dinner Giving. New York: Dempsey & Carroll, 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100173294.
Cleveland, Rose Elizabeth. The Social Mirror: A Complete Treatise on the Laws, Rules and Usages That Govern Our Most Refined Homes and Social Circles. St. Louis, Mo.: L.W. Dickerson, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100557974.
Hall, Florence Howe. Social Customs. Boston: Estes and Lauriat, 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001397017.
Hall, Florence Howe. The Correct Thing in Good Society. Boston: Estes and Lauriat, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777094.
Hardy, E. J. "Manners Makyth Man. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100557966.
Harland, Marion. House and Home: A Complete Housewife’s Guide. Philadelphia, Pa.: J. H. Moore & co., 1889. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000653799.
Houghton, Walter R. Rules of Etiquette and Home Culture: Or What to Do and How to Do It. Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1886. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011595282.
Johnson, Sophia Orne. The New York Fashion Bazar Book of Etiquette. New York: G. Munro, 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011223773.
Keim, De B. Randolph. Hand-Book of Official and Social Etiquette and Public Ceremonials at Washington. A Manual of Rules, Precedents, and Forms in Vogue in Official and Social Life at the Seat of Government of the United States, for the Guidance and Information of Officials, Diplomats, Strangers, and Residents. Also a Guide for Diplomatic and Consular Representatives of the United States in Foreign Countries. Washington, 1889. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000195002.
Lavin, Eliza M., and Cairns Collection of American Women Writers. Good Manners. Metropolitan Series ;[v. 1]. New York: Butterick Publishing Company, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777096.
Lindau, Carl. Der Beste Ton. Regeln Des Anstandes, Und Anleitung, Durch Ein Anständiges Und Gesittetes Benehmen Sich Im Gesellschaftlichen Leben Angenehm Und Beliebt Zu Machen. Ein Sitten- Und Höflichkeitsspiegel Für Junge Leute. Erfurt: F. Bartholomäus, 1882. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921301.
Loewy, Benno. The Manners of the Aristocracy. Ward and Lock’s Useful Handbooks. London: Ward, Lock, Warwick House, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100770760.
Longstreet, Abby Buchanan. Social Etiquette of New York ... New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100330658.
Lounger in society. The Glass of Fashion: A Universal Handbook of Social Etiquette and Home Culture for Ladies and Gentlemen: With Copious and Practical Hints upon the Manners and Ceremonies of Every Relation in Life ... The Secret of Success Series ;6. London: J. Hogg, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/101852847.
Marbury, Elisabeth. Manners; a Handbook of Social Customs ... Chicago: Westminster, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007957951.
McCabe, James D. The National Encyclopaedia of Business and Social Forms, Embracing the Laws of Etiquette and Good Society, and Containing Plain and Simple Instructions in the Art of Appearing to the Best Avantage on All Occasions: How to Dress Well and Tastefully: With Rules for Courtship, Marriage, Etc. ... Cincinnati, O.: Forshee & McMakin, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921269.
Peters, Charles. The Girl’s Own Indoor Book: Containing Practical Help to Girls on All Matters Relating to Their Material Comfort and Moral Well-Being. London: Religious Tract Society, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009357566.
Ransone, L J ]. “Good Form” in England. New York: D. Appleton and company, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011714429.
Rayne, M. L. Gems of Deportment and Hints of Etiquette: The Ceremonials of Good Society, Including Valuable Moral, Mental, and Physical Knowledge, Original and Compiled from the Best Authorities, with Suggestions on All Matters Pertaining to the Social Code. A Manual of Instruction for the Home. Detroit etc.: Tyler, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012294173.
Reed, Isaac N., E. H. Ruddock, and George P. Wood. The Ladies’ Manual: A Guide to Woman in Health and Sickness, from Youth to Advanced Age: Containing Also a Treatise on Marriage and Home Culture, How to Become Beautiful, Rules of Deportment, Dress, and Social Forms, Etc., Etc., Etc. Chicago: I. N. Reed, 1883. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008996237.
Ruth, John A. Decorum: A Practical Treatise on Etiquette and Dress of the Best American Society. New York ; and Cincinnati: Union Pub. House, 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100773571.
Saint-Mars, Gabrielle Anne Cisterne de Courtiras. Comment on Fait Son Chemin Dans Le Monde Code Du Savoir-Vivre. Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1888. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100454824.
Sherwood, M. E. W. Manners and Social Usages. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1884. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001390918.
Sherwood, M. E. W. Manners and Social Usages. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005824625.
Smiley, James B. Modern Manners and Social Forms ... Chicago, Ill.: James B. Smiley, 1889. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100837528.
Stevens, Frances. The Usages of the Best Society. A Complete Manual of Social Etiquette. New York: A.L. Burt, 1884. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/101852984.
Thornwell, Emily. The Lady’s Guide to Complete Etiquette in Manners, Dress, and Conversation, in the Family, in Company, at the Pianoforte, the Table, in the Street, and in Gentlemen’s Society: Also a Useful Instructor in Letter Writing, Toilet Preparations, Fancy Needlework, Millinery, Dressmaking, Care of Wardrobe, the Hair, Teeth, Hands, Lips, Complexion, Etc. Chicago: Belford, Clarke & Co., 1884. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100866716.
White, Lydia E. Success in Society: A Manual of Good Manners, Social Etiquette, Rules of Behavior at Home and Abroad, on the Street, at Public Gatherings, Calls, Conversation, Etc. Boston: James H. Earle, 1889. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777092.
Young, John H. Our Deportment, or, The Manners, Conduct and Dress of the Most Refined Society: Including Forms for Letters, Invitations, Etc., Etc.: Also Valuable Suggestions on Home Culture and Training. Manners, Conduct and Dress of the Most Refined Society. Detroit, Mich.: F.B. Dickerson, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006151580.
The Manners That Win. Compiled from the Latest Authorities. Minneapolis: Buckeye Pub. Co., 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921270.
Modern Etiquette in Public and Private; Including Society at Large, the Etiquette of Weddings, the Ball-Room, the Dinner-Table, the Toilet, &c, &c. London, New York: Frederick Warne and Co., 1887. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007701537.
Good Behavior ... Brattleboro’, Vt., San Francisco, Calif.: Cheney & Clapp; I.N. Choynski, 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006510995.
Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

Online
Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
“Chronology.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
“Fashion Timeline: 1880 To 1890.” Vintage Fashion Guild, n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1880-to-1890/.
“History of Fashion 1840 - 1900.” Victoria and Albert Museum, July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
“Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion.” Victoria and Albert Museum, January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
“Victorian Era: First Bustle and Natural Form (1870-1883).” History of Fashion and Dress, n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/firstbustle.html.
“Victorian Era: Second Bustle Period and Aesthetic Dress (1883-1890).” History of Fashion and Dress, n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/secondbustle.html.
Books/Articles
Amnéus, Cynthia. A Separate Sphere: Dressmakers in Cincinnati’s Golden Age, 1877-1922. Costume Society of America Series. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/907017627.
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Burnham, Helen. “Fashion and the Representation of Modernity: Studies in the Late Work of Édouard Manet (1832-1883).” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/226381287.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Flamant-Paparatti, Danielle. Bien Pensantes, Cocodettes et Bas Bleus : La Femme Bourgeoise à Travers La Presse Féminine et Familiale (1873-1887). Paris: Denoël, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/906468967.
Font, Lourdes M. “International Couture: The Opportunities and Challenges of Expansion, 1880–1920.” Business History 54, no. 1 (February 1, 2012): 30–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2011.626977.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Garb, Tamar. “Painting the ‘Parisienne’: James Tissot and the Making of the Modern Woman.” In Seductive Surfaces: The Art of Tissot, edited by Katharine Jordan Lochnan, 95–120. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/902215198.
Garvey, Ellen Gruber. The Adman in the Parlor : Magazines and the Gendering of Consumer Culture, 1880s to 1910s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300413491.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hecklinger, Charles [from old catalog. The Dress and Cloak Cutter. Burlington, Vt., 1881. http://archive.org/details/dresscloakcutter00heck.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
Iskin, Ruth. “Selling, Seduction, and Soliciting the Eye: Manet’s Bar at the Folies-Bergère.” Art Bulletin 77, no. 1 (March 1995): 25–44. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3046078.
Kinney, Leila W. “Fashion and Figuration in Modern Life Painting.” In Architecture in Fashion, edited by Deborah Fausch, 270–313. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/660058424.
Koch, Augustus [from old catalog. The Cutter and Guide; Poughkeepsie, N.Y., 1883. http://archive.org/details/cutterguide01koch.
Lansdell, Avril. Fashion à La Carte, 1860-1900: A Study of Fashion through Cartes-de-Visite. History in Camera. Princes Risborough, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK: Shire Publications, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/436041340.
Larder, William [from old catalog. Thirty Years at the Cutting-Board: Being a Work Designed to Assist the Student to Acquire Knowledge in the Art of Cutting. Containing a Series of Diagrams Laid down to Measure. New York, 1882. http://archive.org/details/thirtyyearsatcut00lard.
Levitt, Sarah. Fashion in Photographs 1880-1900. Batsford Fashion Guides. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1008122374.
MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Grace Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Samuel Sachs. Whistler, Women, & Fashion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/757386204.
Maeder, Edward, and Evelyn Ackerman, eds. Dressed for the Country, 1860-1900: Exhibition. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/562356615.
Majer, Michele, Lenard R. Berlanstein, Marlis Schweitzer, and Sheila Stowell, eds. Staging Fashion, 1880-1920: Jane Hading, Lily Elsie, Billie Burke. New York: Bard Graduate Center, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/777951295.
Matyjaszkiewicz, Krystyna. “Costume in Tissot’s Pictures.” In James Tissot, 64–77. Oxford: Phaidon, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630471252.
Mitchell, The Jno J. “Standard” Work on Cutting. New York, The Jno. J. Mitchell co., 1884. http://archive.org/details/standardworkoncu01mitc.
Mitchell, The Jno J. “Standard” Work on Cutting. New York, The Jno. J. Mitchell co., 1886. http://archive.org/details/standardworkoncu00mitc.
Moore & Radcliffe, Cleveland. The Incline Method. Cleveland, Ohio, Moore & Radcliffe, 1889. http://archive.org/details/inclinemethod00moor.
Muller, Florence, Farid Chenoune, and Phillippe Thiébaut. Dior Impressions: The Inspiration and Influence of Impressionism at the House of Dior. New York: Rizzoli, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876440735.
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