In 1869, women were beginning to wear bustled silhouettes, often with trains. Bright synthetic dyes continued to be popular and a taste for 18th-century revival elements like the polonaise was growing.



he year 1869 marked a moment of transition in fashionable dress. Fashion moved away from the crinoline and made its first steps towards the bustle. Narrower skirts were topped with overskirts and aprons, some in the form of panniers. But as we will see, 1869 begins with a small revival of old fashions (Fig. 1); in the January “New York Fashions” column subtitled “Ball Toilettes,” a Harper’s Bazar columnist wrote:

“The present revival of the styles of the last century is nowhere so plainly seen as in the fanciful ball toilettes of the winter. Many of the dresses now worn are copied in detail from the costumes of the time of Louis XV. A few years ago this picturesque array was only seen at masquerades and fancy-dress balls. Now many ladies make a careful study of old French pictures, and, with the assistance of a skillful seamstress, fashion their own evening dresses in imitation thereof, sure that they will be in the prevalent mode.” (51)

Highlighting the changing tide in skirts, in March 1969, the British journal World of Fashion, commented:

“In commencing our observations on the Spring Fashions of 1869, we would first state that one of the greatest changes that has taken place since last season is the adoption of the Panier style of looping up (…)” (1)

Then, the following month, a World of Fashion writer discussed skirt styles at length, describing a particular skirt and how it formed a large ‘bouffant’ (1) all around the waist. This style—the bustle—grew in popularity during 1869, edging out the crinoline (Fig. 2).

In The Peterson Magazine “Fashions for August” column, one writer commented:

“With regard to the make of dresses, we are glad to say that no change has taken place, for so numerous have been the new styles lately, that the fashion would almost change between the time a lady took her dress to her dress-marker and got it sent home. Short dresses for street wear, for both old and young; short dresses for the morning for the young; long dresses for afternoon, or visiting, seems to be the rule. But the make of these is so varied, and when not too exaggerated, the looped and puffed skirts are so bewitching that one never tires of them.” (157)

Les Modes Parisiennes

Fig. 1 - François-Claudius Compte-Calix (French, 1813-1880). Les Modes Parisiennes, January 1869. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Public Library. Source: Los Angeles Public Library

Fashion plate

Fig. 2 - Gandin (Italian). Fashion plate, February 1869. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Watson Library, Record no. b17509853. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Watson Library

Godey's Fashions

Fig. 3 - Artist unknown (American). Godey's Fashions, August 1969. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art - Watson Library, Record no. b17509853. Gift of Leo Van Witsen. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art - Watson Library

Getting Dressed

Fig. 4 - Charles-Édouard Boutibonne (French, 1816–1897). Getting Dressed, 1869. Oil on canvas. Private collection. Source: 1000 Museums

These variations in dresses (Fig. 3 and 4) were quite impressive design-wise; but in the context of 1869, none were as new or definitive as the movement towards the bustle (Fig. 5).

The exploration and experimentation with color occurred throughout the 1860s and 1870s, as dyes became more available and popular. Aniline dyes were invented in the mid-nineteenth century which made it possible for designers to create garments in brighter colors than ever before (Fig. 6).


Fig. 5 - Maker unkonwn (American). Ensemble, ca. 1869. Silk. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1984.594a–d. Gift of Deane and Sydney Litwalk, 1984. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art


Fig. 6 - M. Vignon (French). Dress, ca. 1869-70. Ribbed silk trimmed with satin, faced with cotton, brass. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, T.118 to D-1979. Source: Victoria & Albert Museum

The Two Doves

Fig. 7 - William Powell Frith (British, 1819-1909). The Two Doves, 1869. Oil on canvas; 58.5 x 44.5 cm. Private Collection. Source: Bonhams

In 1869, English artist William Frith produced a painting of a young woman with her face half-turned to the viewer, holding a dove on her right hand (Fig. 7). She wears a white dress with small decorative lavender flowers printed on the fabric, and it is paired with a large lavender bow at the waist that cascades down the back of her dress. There is a small presence of a potential bustle here, but it is definitely nowhere close to those seen in other examples. The ruffled neck is delicate and precise, meant to highlight the woman’s facial structure, youth, and beauty. The soft drapery at the wrists allows for her hands to move freely, and the material creates a feeling of wispiness and gentleness. The strong and powerful lavender bow serves as a contrast to the white fabric of the dress, accentuating both the woman’s waist and how small it is; and also as a means to draw attention to her as a whole. The painting reflects the changes in waist-skirt designs, as well as the use of brighter colors by designers. Compared to the other dresses of 1869 (like the reference images on this page), we can see that the dress worn in this Frith painting is quite subdued and far less intricate than the others; this dress most likely belonged to a bourgeois woman as it’s quite decorative to an extent, but not enough to be worn by an upper-class woman. It serves more as an everyday dress. Moreover, the simple headband and humble dove downplay any extravagance this dress may have presented otherwise.

The corset (Fig. 8) remained a mainstay in women’s fashion as the undergarment of choice; it kept dresses structured and it kept women’s bodies looking ‘prim and proper’ in them. Likewise, wedding dresses were still a white or cream color (Figs. 9 and 10).


Fig. 8 - Worcester Skirt Company (American, 1861–1872). Corset, ca. 1869. Cotton, metal. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.6635a, b. Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009; Gift of E. A. Meister, 1950. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Wedding dress

Fig. 9 - Maker unknown (American). Wedding dress, 1869. Silk. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.51.4.2a–c. Gift of Mr. Henry W. Brower, 1951. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Wedding dress

Fig. 10 - Maker unknown (American). Wedding dress, 1869. Silk. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.67.45.1a–c. Gift of Catharine M. Hitchcock, 1967. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art


Men’s fashion saw changes in ties and bowties as various lengths, designs, and shapes were introduced. Unlike women’s clothing—which was highly experimental with color—men’s garments stayed neutral and subdued in black, gray, beige, and brown colorways (Fig. 1). The occasional accessory, such as a flower (Fig. 2), was an added touch of color to a man’s outfit, particularly for going out.

A. Purslow, Montréal, QC, 1869

Fig. 1 - William Notman (Scottish-Canadian, 1826-1891). A. Purslow, Montréal, QC, 1869, 1869. Photograph; 25 x 20 cm. Montréal: Musée McCord. Source: Musée McCord

Edmond Maître

Fig. 2 - Frédéric Bazille (French, 1841 - 1870). Edmond Maître, 1869. Oil on canvas; 83 × 64.2 cm. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1985.64.2. Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon. Source: National Gallery of Art


Children’s wear, especially girl’s dresses, continued to be long in length (Fig. 1).  Some girls’ dresses were sleeveless (Fig. 2), while others were long-sleeved (Fig. 3). Small accessories were often paired with a child’s dress, like a bow or a bonnet. Design modifications such as ruffles, frills, and embroidery were quite popular, but as we see, there was little innovation in 1869 in regards to both children’s and menswear—quite unlike the changes seen in women’s wear.

Le groupe McGibbon, Montréal, QC, 1869

Fig. 1 - William Notman (Scottish-Canadian, 1826-1891). Le groupe McGibbon, Montréal, QC, 1869, 1869. Photograph; 17 x 12 cm. Montréal: Musée McCord. Source: Musée McCord

Child's dress

Fig. 2 - Maker unknown (American). Child's dress, 1869. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.41.67.2. Gift of Mrs. C. H. Hampton, 1941. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Mlle Ross, Montréal, QC, 1869

Fig. 3 - William Notman (Scottish-Canadian, 1826-1891). Mlle Ross, Montréal, QC, 1869, 1869. Photograph; 17.8 x 12.7 cm. Montréal: Musée McCord. Source: Musée McCord



Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1869

Europe 1867. Source: Omniatlas

  • Suez Canal built
  • January 20 – Elizabeth Cady Stanton is the first woman to testify before the United States Congress. (Wikipedia)
  • March 6 – Dmitri Mendeleev makes a formal presentation of his periodic table to the Russian Chemical Society. (Wikipedia)
  • April 6 – The American Museum of Natural History is founded in New York. (Wikipedia)
  • May 10 – The First Transcontinental Railroad in North America is completed at Promontory, Utah, by driving of the “golden spike”. (Wikipedia)
  • May 15 – Women’s suffrage: In New York, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton form the National Woman Suffrage Association. (IFM, 274)
  • September 9 – Due to great success, the second expansion of Le Bon Marché by Aristide Boucicaut (1810–1877) and his wife, Marguerite (1816–1887) begins. (IFM, 274)
  • Opening of the department store À la Paix on the rue du Dix-Décembre (in 1870, the street is renamed the rue du Quatre-Septembre). (IFM, 274)
  • August Destory patents his sewing machine for boots.
  • Gustave Janet (1829–?) launches the magazine La Mode Artistique with color lithograph fashion plates. (IFM, 274)

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

Fashion Plate Collections (Digitized)
NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Womenswear Periodicals (Digitized)
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 33–34. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1869. http://books.google.com/books?id=M0vQAAAAMAAJ.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 33–34. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1869. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074624688.
Bow Bells. Vol. 11. London: John Dicks, 1869. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=umn.319510007314801.
Der Bazar : Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1869. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2997017.
Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. Vol. 78–79. Philadelphia, 1869. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015027389355.
Harper’s Bazar. Vol. 2. New York: Hearst Corporation, 1869. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1869.
Journal des demoiselles. Vol. 37. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1869. https://books.google.com/books?vid=HARVARD:HN73JI.
La Mode illustrée: journal de la famille. Paris: Firmin-Didot frère, fils et cie, 1869. http://books.google.com/books?id=iEhVj7-RRt0C.
La Sylphide : journal de modes, de littérature, de théâtres et de musique, 1869. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb34444962f/date1869.
Le Journal des coiffeurs : publication des coiffeurs réunis, 1869. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb344436197/date1869.
Le Moniteur de la mode: journal du grand monde : modes, illustrations, patrons, littératures, beaux-arts, théatres. 1. Paris: Goubaud, 1869. https://books.google.com/books?id=VcdBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. Paris: Aubert, 1869. http://books.google.com/books?id=psNBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 2. Paris: Aubert, 1869. https://books.google.com/books?id=psNBAAAAcAAJ.
Les Modes parisiennes. 1. Paris: Aubert, 1869. https://books.google.com/books?id=k8NBAAAAcAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 55–56. C.J. Peterson, 1869. http://books.google.com/books?id=QJPNAAAAMAAJ.
Peterson’s Magazine. Vol. 55–56. C.J. Peterson, 1869. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101076520004.
The Lady’s Friend. Vol. 6. Philadelphia: Deacon & Peterson, 1869. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433104825603.
The London and Paris Ladies’ Magazine of Fashion. Vol. 42, 1869. https://books.google.com/books?id=VygGAAAAQAAJ.
The World of Fashion and Continental Feuilletons [Afterw.] The Ladies’ Monthly Magazine, The World of Fashion [Afterw.] Le Monde Élégant; or The World of Fashion, 1869. https://books.google.com/books?id=ixwGAAAAQAAJ.
The Young Englishwoman. London: Ward, Lock and Tyler, 1869. https://books.google.com/books?id=Px8GAAAAQAAJ.
Victoria : illustrirte Muster- und Moden-Zeitung. Berlin: Victoria-Verl., 1869. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Abell, L. G. Woman in Her Various Relations: Containing Practical Rules for American Females. New York: Hubbard & Burgess, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100192096.
Aster, Jane. The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances, Nice Points of Taste and Good Manners, and the Art of Making One’s-Self Agreeable. The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments, Remarks on the History and Changes of Fashion, and the Differences of English and Continental Etiquette. New York: Carleton, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676290.
Cox, Sydney. Friendly Counsel for Girls, or, Words in Season. Words in Season. New York: G. W. Carlton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011538429.
D., and D. [from old catalog] C. The Matter of Manner. Sudbury: H. S. Pratt, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100138761.
Fox, George Patrick. [from old catalog]. Fashion. New York, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009597581.
France. Cérémonial. Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008404138.
Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell. Manners: Or, Happy Homes and Good Society All the Year Round. Boston: J. E. Tilton, 1868. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011563026.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette: And Manual of Politeness: A Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society: Containing Full Directions for Correct Manners, Dress, Deportment, and Conversation ... and Also Useful Receipts for the Complexion, Hair, and with Hints and Directions for the Care of the Wardrobe ... Boston: G. W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777142.
Hartley, Florence. The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness ; a Complete Hand Book for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society. Boston: G.W. Cottrell, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100685756.
Leslie, Eliza. The Ladies’ Guide to True Politeness and Perfect Manners: Or, Miss Leslie’s Behaviour Book, a Guide and Manual for Ladies ... Philadelphia: B. Peterson, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100165382.
Merten, Heinrich. Modernes Komplimentirbuch; Oder, Die Quintessenz Des Anstades Und Der Eleganz. Ein Unentbehrlicher Rathgeber Für Personen Beiderlei Geschlechts. Reutlingen: Fleischauer und Spohn, 1863. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008679336.
Routledge’s Manual of Etiquette. London ; New York: Routledge, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007672052.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen. With Thoughts, Hints, and Anecdotes Concerning Social Observances. New York: Rudd & Carleton, 1860. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011159230.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook for Ladies and Gentlemen...The Whole Interspersed with Humorous Illustrations of Social Predicaments. New York: Carleton, 1864. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676292.
Menswear Periodicals / Etiquette Books (Digitized)
The Journal Des Tailleurs, or The Cutter’s Monthly Journal of London & Paris Fashions and Chronicle of Fashion. [Continued as] The Cutter’s Monthly Journal and Tailor’s Chronicle, 1869. https://books.google.com/books?id=ghQGAAAAQAAJ.

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

“Bloomsbury Fashion Central - Berg Fashion Library,” n.d. https://www.bloomsburyfashioncentral.com/products/berg-fashion-library.
Krick, Jessa. “Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and the House of Worth.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrth/hd_wrth.htm.
The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. “Chronology,” n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
“Costume Institute Fashion Plates.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/p15324coll12.
“Der Bazar - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2083461.
Vintage Fashion Guild. “Fashion Timeline: 1860 To 1870,” n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1860-to-1870/.
“Gazette of Fashion, and Cutting-Room Companion.” Accessed May 7, 2018. https://books.google.com/books?id=tCIGAAAAQAAJ&source=gbs_similarbooks.
“Hemeroteca Digital. Biblioteca Nacional de España.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://hemerotecadigital.bne.es/results.vm?a=4782809&t=%2Bcreation&l=600&l=700&s=0&y=1868&lang=en.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “History of Fashion 1840 - 1900,” July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
Cook, Michael. “Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition and History,” January 1, 2003. http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/h/hearth/browse/title/4732809.html#1868.
Victoria and Albert Museum. “Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion,” January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
“Victoria - Title - Digitale Sammlungen - Digital Collections.” Accessed May 7, 2018. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/titleinfo/2181751.
History of Fashion and Dress. “Victorian Era: The Crinoline Period (1850-1869),” n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/belleepoque.html.
Acton, William R. Acton’s Improved System of Actual Measurement. [New York, De Vries & Wood, printers], 1867. http://archive.org/details/actonsimprovedsy00acto.
Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen’s Dresses & Their Construction, 1860-1940. New ed. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1977. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223335455.
Ashelford, Jane, ed. A Visual History of Costume. London : Batsford ; New York: Drama Book Publishers, 1983.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Bailey, Colin B. Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting. New York: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786139582.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Boucher, François. Paris, Miroir de La Mode: Crinolines et Calèches, 1855-1867. Paris: Éditions Rombaldi, 1959. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/438804700.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brockaway, W. [from old catalog. The Great Balance-Measure System, for Cutting Coats, Vests, Pants, Cloaks, and Shirts. New York, Baker & Godwin, printers, 1864. http://archive.org/details/greatbalancemeas01broc.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Brundage, William W. [from old catalog. A Complete System of Cutting. [New York, Printed by A. Marrer], 1867. http://archive.org/details/completesystemof00brun.
Cole, Luman E. [from old catalog. The Tailors’ Guide: Containing Systems of Draughting Frock and Sack Coats, Pants, Vests and Shirts, with Valuable Improvements, Warranted Superior to Anything Ever Offered to the Trade. Milwaukee, Stan & son, book and job printers, 1868. http://archive.org/details/tailorsguidecont00cole.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume Society. High Victorian Costume, 1860-1890 Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the Costume Society, March 1968. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/620413645.
De Young, Justine. “Representing the Modern Woman: The Fashion Plate Reconsidered (1865-1875).” In Women, Femininity and Public Space in European Visual Culture, 1789-1914, edited by Heather Belnap Jensen and Temma Balducci, 97–114. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876466633.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
De Young, Justine. “‘Housewife or Harlot’: Art, Fashion & Morality in the Paris Salon of 1868.” In Cultures of Femininity in Modern Fashion, edited by Ilya Parkins and Elizabeth M. Sheehan, 124–47. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire Press, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/823388661.
De Young, Justine. “Fashion and the Press.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 233–43. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
Dolan, Therese. “The Empress’s New Clothes: Fashion and Politics in Second Empire France.” Woman’s Art Journal, Spring 1994, 22–28. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1358491.
Dolan, Therese. “Skirting the Issue: Manet’s Portrait of Baudelaire’s Mistress, Reclining.” The Art Bulletin 79, no. 4 (December 1997). http://www.jstor.org/stable/3046278.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Garb, Tamar. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siècle France. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39651988.
Glencross, William [from old catalog. Manual; New York, W. Glencross, 1866. http://archive.org/details/manual00glen.
Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
Groom, Gloria Lynn, ed. Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/794814340.
Hambourg, Maria Morris. Nadar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/851034965.
Hansen, Dorothee. Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus. Munich: Hirmer, 2005. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/489638739.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Iskin, Ruth. Modern Women and Parisian Consumer Culture in Impressionist Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870650201.
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Lambert, Miles. Fashion in Photographs 1860-1880. London: Batsford, 1991. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/300306371.
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Leisch, Juanita. Who Wore What?: Women’s Wear, 1861-1865. Gettysburg: Thomas Publications, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/33070937.
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Maeder, Edward, and Evelyn Ackerman, eds. Dressed for the Country, 1860-1900: Exhibition. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/562356615.
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McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “Photography, Fashion, and the Cult of Appearances.” In Impressionism, Fashion & Modernity, edited by Gloria Groom, 197–207. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/843185621.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “The Carte de Visite and Portrait Painting during the Second Empire.” In A.A.E. Disdéri and the Carte de Visite Portrait Photograph, 137–203. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/755288192.
Nead, Lynda. “The Layering of Pleasure: Women, Fashionable Dress and Visual Culture in the Mid-Nineteenth Century.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 35, no. 5 (2013): 489–509.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. 80 Godey’s Full-Color Fashion Plates, 1838-1880. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/868271404.
Phyliky, Leonard. The Tailor; New System of Drafting Direct from the Measurement Taken with a Tape Measure, without Any Instrument, for All the Various Forms of the Human Body. New York: T. Holman, 1867. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011213188.
Piazza, Arianna, ed. Fashion 150: 150 Years, 150 Designers. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/961459695.
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Pocket Museum. “1860s Fashion Plates,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-fashion-plates/.
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Pocket Museum. “1860s Outerwear,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-outerwear/.
Pocket Museum. “1860s Portrait Paintings,” 1860s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1860s-portrait-paintings/.
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